Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • Publication
    Residential exposure to port noise: a case study of Dublin, Ireland
    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recently acknowledged that contrary to the trend for other environmental stressors, noise exposure is increasing in Europe. While a considerable amount of research has recently been undertaken assessing the extent of noise from road, rail and air transportation in the EU, relatively little research has been conducted internationally assessing the extent of environmental noise within the vicinity of major European shipping ports. Accordingly, this paper reports on research examining the extent of noise exposure for residents within the vicinity of Dublin Port, Ireland using the nation’s largest port terminal as a proxy for port noise. Three gantries were erected without planning permission in 2002 but no enforcement proceedings were brought against the operating company prior to a seven-year enforcement period under planning laws expiring. Thus, operational hours and noise levels remain relatively unregulated. In order to assess the level of exposure in the area, a series of long-term measurements were undertaken at the most exposed façade of local resident’s homes to determine whether the extent of day-time and night-time exposure was above levels recommended by the WHO. The results show that exposure is significant and well-above guideline limits considered detrimental to human health and quality of life. They also suggest that there may be a low-frequency noise problem in the study area.
      590
  • Publication
    Strategic noise mapping, population exposure estimates and 'acoustical planning' mitigation analysis in a European capital city
    (Portugese Acoustical Assocation, 2010-06) ;
    This paper reports on research conducted to analyse the impact of two noise mitigation measures on levels of population exposure in Dublin, Ireland: travel demand and speed reduction. At the outset, the research utilises the CRTN calculation model, LIMA software and GIS to establish areas of poor sound quality. Then a base reference condition of selected roads within noise hotspots is used as a benchmark for assessing the relative impact of the mitigation measures in terms of their ability to bring about reductions in levels of population exposure to noise for both Lden and Lnight. The results demonstrate that in terms of noise action planning, reducing the level of travel demand leads to the most significant reduction in population exposure for Lden and Lnight. They highlight the significant role that noise mitigation measures can play in aiding good ‘acoustical planning’ in the future.
      371
  • Publication
    Reducing pedestrian exposure to environmental pollutants : a combined noise exposure and air quality analysis approach
    It has been estimated that at least one fifth of the population of the EU suffer a reduced quality of life due to exposure to noise. Chief among those affected are city-dwellers. For today’s urban planners environmental noise represents a significant environmental pollutant that must be addressed along with concerns over air quality. Taken together, noise and air pollution represent a significant contribution to the overall reduction in the quality of life of urban residents. The need for good urban planning with particular reference to both air and noise pollution has arisen. This paper examines a case study involving a dividing wall situated between two walkways adjacent to a main road in Dublin’s city centre, with particular attention paid to both air and noise pollution. Both air and noise measurements were conducted on site and compared to modelled results. It was found that the dividing wall decreased noise levels by approximately 55% while a similar improvement in air quality was observed. The study also demonstrated that further reductions in noise and air pollution exposure can be achieved by increasing the height of the boundary wall and/or by lowering the position of the boardwalk relative to the position of the road. In order to present combined results, a joint air and noise pollution index was developed, which was used to quantify the overall improvements due to the presence of the boardwalk. It is proposed that an index of this sort could be a valuable tool for future urban planning.
      849Scopus© Citations 54
  • Publication
    Environmental Noise Mapping with Smartphone Applications: A Participatory Noise Map of West Hartford, CT
    This paper reports on the second phase of an on-going study concerning the use of smartphone applications to measure environmental noise at the University of Hartford. This phase involved the development of two strategic noise maps of West Hartford town center: i) a standard noise map developed using traditional mapping techniques and ii) a participatory noise map utilizing smartphone-based measurement data (a citizen-science approach to noise mapping). The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of developing a noise map using a citizen science based approach. Results suggest that smartphone applications can be used to collect environmental noise data and these data may be used in the development of a participatory noise map.
      267
  • Publication
    Implementation of the EU environmental noise directive : lessons from the first phase of strategic noise mapping and action planning in Ireland
    The first phase of noise mapping and action planning in Ireland, in accordance with EU Directive 2002/49/EC, is now complete. In total this included one agglomeration, one airport and approximately 600 km of major roads outside the agglomeration. These noise maps describe the level of noise exposure of approximately 1.25 million people. The first phase of noise mapping was dealt with by five noise mapping bodies while 26 action planning authorities were involved in the development of the associated action plans. The second phase of noise mapping, due to be completed in 2012, sees a reduction in the defined thresholds describing the required agglomerations, roads and railways that have to be mapped. This will have a significant impact on the extent of mapping required. In Ireland this will result in an increased number of local authorities being required to develop strategic noise maps for their area along with the further development of associated action plans. It is appropriate at this point to review the work process and results from the first phase of noise mapping in Ireland in order to establish areas that could be improved, throughout the noise mapping project. In this paper a review of the implementation procedures focussing on (dominant) road traffic noise is presented. It is identified that more standardisation is needed and this could be achieved by the establishment of a national expert steering group.
    Scopus© Citations 61  2059
  • Publication
    Mapping for sustainability: environmental noise and the city
    In the last decade or so, the term sustainability has become fashionable not only among scientists but also among the general public. While this undoubtedly demonstrates that public awareness of environmental issues is increasing, it is also the case that the meaning of the concept can be elusive for many. As has been highlighted earlier in this volume, the notion of sustainability is something of a contested term quite aside from the idea of environmental sustainability, which is a more specific component of the broader concept
      999
  • Publication
    A critical review of current policy for the assessment of night-time noise in the EU
    (UK Institute of Acoustics, 2011-07) ;
    This paper explores issues surrounding the estimation of population exposure data in accordance with EU Directive 2002/49/EC and, in particular, focuses on the assessment of night-time noise. It has been identified by many authors that no standardised method for estimating population exposure to noise exists. Thus, results from noise exposure studies across Member States cannot be compared reliably or combined. For sleep disturbance assessments, the issue is further compounded by the use of methodologies that are not fully understood. Significant concern exists over the use of the new Lnight indicator, which is measured over eight hours, as sleep disturbance studies to date rarely cover this period and noise indices do not usually include Lnight. Furthermore, assessments are performed using calculations at the position of the most exposed façade, while the impact of using this position, with respect to the bedroom, has not been fully quantified. This paper summarises the practical issues associated with the assessment of night-time noise in accordance with the requirements of EU Directive 2002/49/EC. Possible solutions are suggested including further guidance and the creation of an EU data infrastructure that would significantly improve benchmarking and comparison of future exposure studies under the terms of the Directive.
      403
  • Publication
    Exploring the accuracy of smartphone applications for measuring environmental noise
    (International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE-USA), 2015-08-12) ; ; ;
    This paper reports on experimental tests undertaken to assess the capability of noise monitoring apps on smartphones to be utilised as an alternative low cost solution to traditional noise monitoring using a sound level meter. The methodology consisted of testing more than 100 smartphones in a reverberation room. White noise was utilised to test the ability of smartphones to measure noise at background, 50, 70 and 90 dB(A) and these measurements were compared with true noise levels acquired via a calibrated sound level meter. Tests were conducted on phones using the Android and iOS platforms. For each smartphone, tests were completed separately for three leading noise monitoring apps culminating in more than 1400 tests. The results suggest that apps written for the iOS platform are superior to those running on the Android platform which, in relative terms, performed rather poorly. For one of the iOS noise apps, the test results were within 1 dB(A) of the true noise level indicating the clear potential of the iPhone to be used as a low cost monitoring device in the future. The research has implications for the future use of smartphones as low cost monitoring and assessment devices for environmental noise.
      2672
  • Publication
    Estimating human exposure to transport noise in central Dublin, Ireland
    This paper reports on research conducted to determine estimates of the extent of environmental noise exposure from road transport on residents and workers in central Dublin, Ireland. The Harmonoise calculation method is used to calculate noise values for the study area while a Geographical Information System (GIS) is utilised as a platform upon which levels of noise exposure are estimated. Residential exposure is determined for Lden and Lnight while worker exposure is determined for Lden. In order to analyse the potential of traffic management as a noise abatement measure, traffic was redirected from the main residential areas to alternative road links and the revised exposure levels were determined. The results show that the extent of noise exposure in Dublin is considerable, and in relative terms, it is worse for the night-time period. In addition, the results suggest also that traffic management measures have the potential to lead to significant reductions in the level of noise exposure provided that careful consideration is given to the impact of traffic flows on residential populations.
      1077Scopus© Citations 84
  • Publication
    Testing the accuracy of smartphones and sound level meter applications for measuring environmental noise
    (Elsevier, 2016-05) ;
    This paper reports on experimental tests undertaken to assess the capability of noise monitoring applications to be utilized as an alternative low cost solution to traditional noise monitoring using a sound level meter. The methodology consisted of testing 100 smartphones in a reverberation room. Broadband white noise was utilized to test the ability of smartphones to measure noise at background, 50, 70 and 90 dB(A) and these measurements were compared with true noise levels acquired via a calibrated sound level meter. Tests were conducted on phones using the Android and iOS platforms. For each smartphone, tests were completed separately for leading noise monitoring apps culminating in 1472 tests. The results suggest that apps written for the iOS platform are superior to those running on the Android platform. They show that one of the apps tested – SLA Lite – is within ±1 dB of true noise levels across four different reference conditions. The results also show that there is a significant relationship between phone age and its ability to measure noise accurately. The research has implications for the future use of smartphones as low cost monitoring and assessment devices for environmental noise.
      3288Scopus© Citations 128