Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
  • Publication
    An analysis of the EU Emission Trading Scheme
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2009) ;
    The European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is the key policy instrument of the European Commission's Climate Change Program aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to eight percent below 1990 levels by 2012. A critically important element of the EU ETS is the establishment of a market determined price for EU allowances. This article examines the extent to which several theoretically founded factors including, economic growth, energy prices and weather conditions determine the expected prices of the European Union CO2 allowances during the 2005 through to the 2009 period. The novel aspect of our study is that we examine the heavily traded futures instruments that have an expiry date in Phase 2 of the EU ETS. Our study adopts both static and recursive versions of the Johansen multivariate cointegration likelihood ratio test as well as a variation on this test with a view to controlling for time varying volatility effects. Our results are indicative of a new pricing regime emerging in Phase 2 of the market and point to a maturing market driven by the fundamentals. These results are valuable both for traders of EU allowances and for those policy makers seeking to improve the design of the European Union ETS.
      342
  • Publication
    Managing foreign exchange exposure for Irish exports
    (Irish Bankers Federation, 2006-05) ;
    All exporters need to correctly manage their foreign exchange exposure with the full support and expertise of their banks, states Dr. John Cotter.
      229
  • Publication
    Correlation dynamics between Asia-Pacifc, EU and US stock returns
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2007) ; ;
    This paper investigates the correlation dynamics in the equity markets of 13 Asia-Pacific countries, Europe and the US using the asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation GARCH model (AG-DCC-GARCH) introduced by Cappiello, Engle and Sheppard (2006). We find significant variation in correlation between markets through time. Stocks exhibit asymmetries in conditional correlations in addition to conditional volatility. Yet asymmetry is less appar- ent in less integrated markets. The Asian crisis acts as a structural break, with correlations increasing markedly between crisis countries during this period though the bear market in the early 2000s is a more significant event for correlations with developed markets. Our findings also provide further evidence consistent with increasing global market integration. The documented asymmetries and correlation dynamics have important implications for international portfolio diversification and asset allocation.
      863
  • Publication
    Real & nominal foreign exchange volatility effects on exports – the importance of timing
    (2009-11-19T16:30:10Z) ;
    This paper compares real and nominal foreign exchange volatility effects on exports. Using a flexible lag version of the Goldstein-Khan two-country imperfect substitutes model for bilateral trade, we identify the overall effect into both a timing as well as a size impact. We find that the size impact of forecasted foreign exchange volatility does not vary according to the measure used in terms of magnitude and direction. However, there are very different timing effects, when we compare real and nominal foreign exchange rate volatility.
      307
  • Publication
    Volatility and Irish exports
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2004-10-12) ;
    We analyse the impact of volatility per se on exports for a a small open economy concentrating on Irish trade with the UK and the US. An important element is that we take account of the time lag between the trade decision and the actual trade or payments taking place by using a flexible lag approach. Rather than adopt a single measure of risk we also adopt a spectrum of risk measures and detail varied size characteristics and statistical properties. We find that the ambiguous results found to date may well be due to not taking account of the timing effect which varies substantially depending on which volatility measure is used. However, the foreign exchange volatility effect is consistently positive, indicating the dominance of exporters expectations of possible profitable opportunities from future cash flows. The potential negative aspects of trade, the entry and exit costs, are accounted for by a negative influence of income volatility on trade.
      328
  • Publication
    Monetary shocks and REIT returns
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2007) ; ;
    We investigate the influence of unanticipated changes in US monetary policy on Equity Real Estate Investment Trusts (REIT’s). Although a number of studies have investigated the issue of interest rate changes, the effect of unanticipated changes has not previously been addressed in terms of possible effects on both REIT’s returns and volatility. The results show a strong response in both the first and second moments of REIT returns to unexpected policy rate changes. The results for the impact of the shock on both mean and volatility of returns is consistent with results from studies addressing broader equity markets. However, we find evidence both against behavioral changes in volatility coincident to US monetary policy decisions and asymmetric responses to the monetary policy shock.
      1123
  • Publication
    Is macroeconomic uncertainty bad for macroeconomic performance? Evidence from five Asian countries
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2007-03) ;
    We use a very general bivariate GARCH-M model and quarterly data for five Asian countries to test for the impact of real and nominal macroeconomic uncertainty on inflation and output growth. Our evidence supports a number of important conclusions. First, in the majority of countries uncertainty regarding the output growth rate is related negatively to the average growth rate. Second, contrary to expectations, inflation uncertainty in most cases does not harm the output growth performance of an economy. Third, inflation and output uncertainty have a mixed effect on inflation. These results imply that macroeconomic uncertainty may even improve macroeconomic performance, i.e., raise output growth and reduce inflation.
      168
  • Publication
    Real & nominal foreign exchange volatility effects on exports – the importance of timing
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2006) ;
    This paper compares real and nominal foreign exchange volatility effects on exports. Using a flexible lag version of the Goldstein-Khan two-country imperfect substitutes model for bilateral trade, we identify the overall effect into both a timing as well as a size impact. We find that the size impact of forecasted foreign exchange volatility does not vary according to the measure used in terms of magnitude and direction. However, there are very different timing effects, when we compare real and nominal foreign exchange rate volatility.
      403
  • Publication
    International influences on Irish stock returns
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2004-03) ;
    We examine the influence of US and UK macroeconomic and financial variables on Irish stock returns in a nonlinear framework. We allow for time variation via regime switching using a smooth transition regression (STR) model. Importantly we find that both US and UK stock returns are significant determinants of Irish returns. Further,US returns are an important transition variable. Additionally,we show that both the US industrial production growth and changesin short term interest rates play an important role in explaining Irish stock returns. A two transition variable model finds that US short term interest rate changes exert a secondary nonlinear influence on Irish returns. The significance of US variables is reflective of the influence of US investment in the Irish economy.
      397
  • Publication
    Macroeconomic uncertainty and macroeconomic performance: are they related?
    (University College Dublin. School of Business. Centre for Financial Markets, 2004-02) ;
    We use a very general multivariate GARCH-M model and G7 monthly data covering the 1957-2003 period to test for the impact of real and nominal macroeconomic uncertainty on inflation and output growth.Our evidence supports a number of important conclusions. First, in most countries output growth uncertainty is a positive determinant of the output growth rate. Second, there is mixed evidence regarding the effect of inflation uncertainty on inflation and output growth. Hence,uncertainty about the inflation rate is not necessarily detrimental to economic growth. Finally, there is mixed evidence on the effect of output uncertainty on inflation.
      456