Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Profiles of resilient survivors of institutional abuse in Ireland
    In a group of 247 survivors of institutional abuse in Ireland, 45 cases (18%) did not meet the diagnostic criteria for common DSM IV axis I or II disorders. This resilient group was compared with a poorly adjusted group of 119 participants who met the criteria for 1-3 DSM IV axis I or II diagnoses, and a very poorly adjusted group of 83 participants who had 4 or more disorders. Compared with the very poorly adjusted group, the resilient group was older and of higher socio-economic status; had suffered less sexual and emotional institutional abuse; experienced less traumatization and re-enactment of institutional abuse; had fewer trauma symptoms and life problems; had a higher quality of life and global level of functioning; engaged in less avoidant coping; and more resilient survivors had a secure adult attachment style. The resilient group differed from the poorly adjusted group on a subset of these variables. The results of this study require replication in other contexts. Therapeutic interventions with survivors should focus on facilitating the use of non-avoidant coping strategies and the development of a secure adult attachment style.
  • Publication
    Investigating the psychometric properties of the revised child anxiety and depression scale (RCADS) in a non-clinical sample of Irish adolescents
    Background: The psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) have been established cross-culturally, yet psychometric evidence is lacking for an English-speaking European population. Aim: This research sought to further cross-validate the measure in a non-clinical Irish adolescent sample, and to test for gender and age-based differential item functioning in depression and anxiety. Method: Participants were Irish second-level school students (N = 345; 164 male; 12–18 years, M =14.97, SD = 1.44). Confirmatory factor analysis for categorical data (confirmatory item factor analysis) and multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) modelling to identify items displaying possible metric invariance were conducted. Results: A six-factor model fit the data well in both gender samples and both school cycles, as a proxy for age samples. Gender-based metric invariance for 5 of 47 items and age-based metric invariance for three items were identified. However, the magnitudes were small. Internal consistency and validity were also established. Conclusions: While, a number of items demonstrated minor metric invariance, there was no evidence that they influenced overall scores meaningfully. The RCADS can reasonably be used without adjustment in male and female, younger and older, adolescent samples. Findings have implications for the use of the RCADS in an English-speaking European population.
    Scopus© Citations 30  1176
  • Publication
    Development and initial validation of the Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory among a sample of Irish adult survivors of institutional abuse
    Objective. To develop a psychometric instrument to evaluate psychological processes associated with institutional abuse and coping strategies used to deal with such abuse. Methods. As part of a comprehensive assessment protocol, an inventory containing theoretically derived multi-item rational scales which assessed institutional abuse-related psychological processes and coping strategies were administered to 247 Irish adult survivors of institutional child abuse. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to derive 6 factor scales, the reliability and validity of which were assessed. Results. Factor scales to assess the following constructs were developed (1) traumatization, (2) re-enactment, (3) spiritual disengagement, (4) positive coping, (5) coping by complying, and (6) avoidant coping. There were varying degrees of support for the validity of the scales with most support for the traumatization and re-enactment scales. Conclusions. The Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory (ICAPCI), particularly its traumatization and re-enactment scales, may be used in future research on adult survivors of institutional child abuse because they are currently the only scales that have been developed with this population to provide reliable and valid assessments of these constructs. Practice implications. The ICAPCI may be used, cautiously, to assess adult survivors of institutional child abuse.
      620Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Comorbidity and COVID-19: Investigating the Relationship between Medical and Psychological Well-being
    Objective: The unprecedented occurrence of a global pandemic is accompanied by both physical and psychological burdens that may impair quality of life. Research relating to COVID-19 aims to determine the effects of the pandemic on vulnerable populations who are at high risk of developing negative health or psychosocial outcomes. Having an ongoing medical condition during a pandemic may lead to greater psychological distress. Increased psychological distress may be due to preventative public health measures (e.g. lockdown), having an ongoing medical condition, or a combination of these factors. Methods: This study analyses data from an online cross-sectional national survey of adults in Ireland and investigates the relationship between comorbidity and psychological distress. Those with a medical condition (n=128) were compared to a control group without a medical condition (n=128) and matched according to age, gender, annual income, education, and work status during COVID-19. Participants and data were obtained during the first public lockdown in Ireland (27.03.2020–08.06.2020). Results: Individuals with existing medical conditions reported significantly higher levels of anxiety (p<.01) and felt less gratitude (p≤.001). Exploratory analysis indicates that anxiety levels were significantly associated with illness perceptions specific to COVID-19. Post-hoc analysis reveal no significant difference between the number of comorbidities and condition type (e.g. respiratory disorders). Conclusion: This research supports individualised supports for people with ongoing medical conditions through the COVID-19 pandemic, and has implications for the consideration of follow-up care specifically for mental health. Findings may also inform future public health policies and post-vaccine support strategies for vulnerable populations.
      143Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    A comprehensive analysis of the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a sample of outpatients with adjustment disorder and depressive episode
    Objectives: Despite being commonly used in research and clinical practice, the evidence regarding the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) remains equivocal and this has implications on how the scale scores should be aggregated. Researchers continue to debate whether the BDI-II is best viewed as a unidimensional scale, or whether specific subscales have utility. The present study sought to test a comprehensive range of competing factor analytic models of the BDI-II, including traditional non-hierarchical multidimensional models and confirmatory bifactor models. Method: Participants (N = 370) were clinical outpatients diagnosed with either depressive episode or adjustment disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis and confirmatory bifactor modelling were used to test 15 competing models. The unidimensionality of the best fitting model was assessed using three strength indices (ECV, PUC and ωH). Results: Overall, bifactor solutions provided superior fit than both unidimensional and non-hierarchical multidimensional models. The best fitting model consisted of a general depression factor and three specific factors: cognitive, somatic, and affective. High factor loadings and strength indices for the general depression factor supported the view that the BDI-II measures a single latent construct. Conclusions: The BDI-II should primarily be viewed as a unidimensional scale, and should be scored as such. Although it is not recommended that scores on individual subscales are used in isolation, they may prove useful in clinical assessment and/or treatment planning if used in conjunction with total scores.
      559Scopus© Citations 23