Now showing 1 - 10 of 23
  • Publication
    Simulation of High-Frequency Rotational Motion in a Two-Dimensional Laterally Heterogeneous Half-Space
    The seismic waves responsible for vibrating civil engineering structures undergo interference, focusing, scattering, and diffraction by the inhomogeneous medium encountered along the sourceto-site propagation path. The subsurface heterogeneities at a site can particularly alter the local seismic wave field and amplify the ground rotations, thereby increasing the seismic hazard. The conventional techniques to carry out full wave field simulations (such as finite-difference or spectral finite element methods) at high frequencies (e.g., 15 Hz) are computationally expensive, particularly when the size of the heterogeneities is small (e.g., <100 m). This study proposes an alternative technique that is based on the first-order perturbation theory for wave propagation. In this technique, the total wave field due to a particular source is obtained as a superposition of the ‘mean’ and ‘scattered’ wave fields. Whereas the ‘mean’ wave field is the response of the background (i.e., heterogeneity-free) medium due to the given source, the ‘scattered’ wave is the response of the background medium excited by fictitious body forces. For a two-dimensional laterally heterogeneous elastic medium, these body forces can be conveniently evaluated as a function of the material properties of the heterogeneities and the mean wave field. Since the problem of simulating high-frequency rotations in a laterally heterogeneous medium reduces to that of calculating rotations in the background medium subjected to the (1) given seismic source and (2) body forces that mathematically replace the small-scale heterogeneities, the original problem can be easily solved in a computationally accurate and efficient manner by using the classical (analytical) wavenumber-integration method. The workflow is illustrated for the case of a laterally heterogenous layer embedded in a homogeneous half-space excited by plane bodywaves.
  • Publication
    Efficacy of Seismic Interferometry in Removing Surface Waves from Active Seismic Records
    (Copernicus, 2021-04-30) ;
    While there are seismic techniques which make use of surface waves in imaging the subsurface, there are also those where these types of waves are considered coherent noise. Important examples where the surface waves may significantly degrade the obtained images include different types of reflection seismic surveys (e.g., shallow surveys for engineering, environmental and groundwater investigations, and deep surveys for imaging hydrocarbon reservoirs). In a strongly heterogeneous medium (encountered typically in onshore surveys), the conventional methods for attenuating these waves (such as f-k "velocity" filtering) often do not give satisfactory results.
  • Publication
    The state of stress in the shallow crust of the Hikurangi Subduction Margin hangingwall, New Zealand
    Knowledge of in situ stress fields is critical for a better understanding of deformation, faulting regime, and earthquake processes in seismically active margins such as the Hikurangi Subduction Margin (HSM), North Island, New Zealand. In this study, we utilize Leak-off Test (LOTs) data, borehole breakout widths measured from borehole image logs, and rock unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) derived from empirical P-wave velocity log relationships to estimate vertical (Sv), minimum (Shmin), and maximum horizontal stress magnitudes (SHmax) and interpret the likely faulting regime experienced in four boreholes (Kauhauroa-2, Kauhauroa-5, Titihaoa-1, and Tawatawa-1). Using the standard Anderson’s stress regime classification, relative stress magnitudes in Kauhauroa-5 at 1200-1700 m depth and Kauhauroa-2 at 1800-2100 m and indicate that the stress state in the shallow crust of the central and northern part of HSM is predominantly strike-slip (SHmax≥Sv≥Shmin) and normal Sv≥SHmax> Shmin respectively. Moving to the offshore, southern HSM a dominant compressional stress regime (SHmax> Shmin >Sv), with some possible strike slip stress states are observed in Titihaoa-1 from 2240-2660 m and Tawatawa-1 from 750-1350 m. The observed normal/strike-slip stress state in Kauhauroa-2 and Kauhauroa-5 is consistent with the average SHmax orientation of 64° ± 18° (NE-SW) determined from borehole breakouts and dominantly NE–SW striking normal faults interpreted from seismic reflection data. The normal/ strike-slip regime in this area suggests that the stress regime here is probably influenced by the effect of the clockwise rotation of the HSM hangingwall associated with oblique Pacific-Australia plate convergence (ENE-WSW). Alternatively, these stress states could be the result of gravitational collapse due to rapid uplift of the subducting plate during the mid-Miocene. The compressional stress regime in the southern HSM in Titihaoa-1 and Tawatawa-1 is in agreement with the SHmax orientations of 148° ± 14° (NW-SE ) and 102° ± 16° (WNW-ESE) obtained from image logs and mapped NE–SW striking reverse faults in this region. This observation suggests that the tectonics here are strongly linked to the subduction of Hikurangi plateau under Australian Plate (NW-SE) or active frontal thrusts in the overriding plate.
  • Publication
    Diffraction imaging of sedimentary basins: An example from the Porcupine Basin 
    iffraction imaging is the technique of separating diffraction energy from the source wavefield and processing it independently. As diffractions are formed from objects and discontinuities, or diffractors, which are small in comparison to the wavelength, if the diffraction energy is imaged, so too are the diffractors. These diffractors take many forms such as faults, fractures, and pinch-out points, and are therefore geologically significant. Diffraction imaging has been applied here to the Porcupine Basin; a hyperextended basin located 200km to the southwest of Ireland with a rich geological history. The basin has seen interest both academically and industrially as a study on hyperextension and a potential source of hydrocarbons. The data is characterised by two distinct, basin-wide, fractured carbonates nestled between faulted sandstones and mudstones. Additionally, there are both mass-transport deposits and fans present throughout the data, which pose a further challenge for diffraction imaging. Here, we propose the usage of diffraction imaging to better image structures both within the carbonate, such as fractures, and below.
  • Publication
    Helicopter location and tracking using seismometer recordings
    We use frequency domain methods usually applied to volcanic tremor to analyse ground based seismic recordings of a helicopter. We preclude misinterpretations of tremor sources and show alternative applications of our seismological methods. On a volcano, the seismic source can consist of repeating, closely spaced, small earthquakes. Interestingly, similar signals are generated by helicopters, due to repeating pressure pulses from the rotor blades. In both cases the seismic signals are continuous and referred to as tremor. As frequency gliding is in this case merely caused by the Doppler effect, not a change in the source, we can use its shape to deduce properties of the helicopter and its flight path. We show in this analysis that the number of rotor blades, rotor revolutions per minute (RPM), helicopter speed, flight direction, altitude and location can be deduced from seismometer recordings. Access to GPS determined flight path data from the helicopter offers us a robust way to test our location method.
      341Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    New observations of displacement steps associated with volcano seismic long-period events, constrained by step-table experiments
    (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2015-05-28) ; ;
    Long-period (LP) volcano seismic events often precede volcanic eruptions and are viewed with considerable interest in hazard assessment. They are usually thought to be associated with resonating fluid-filled conduits although alternative models involving material failure have recently been proposed. Through recent field experiments, we uncovered a step-like displacement component associated with some LP events, outside the spectral range of the typically narrow-band analysis for this kind of event. Bespoke laboratory experiments with step tables show that steps of the order of a few micrometers can be extracted from seismograms, where long-period noise is estimated and removed with moving median filters. Using these constraints, we observe step-like ground deformation in LP recordings near the summits of Turrialba and Etna Volcanoes. This represents a previously unobserved static component in the source time history of LP events, with implications for the underlying source process.
      262Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    Geophysical examination of the 27 April 2016 Whakaari/White Island, New Zealand, eruption and its implications for vent physiognomies and eruptive dynamics
    At approximately 09:36 UTC on 27 April 2016, a phreatic eruption occurred on Whakaari Island (White Island) producing an eruption sequence that contained multiple eruptive pulses determined to have occurred over the first 30 min, with a continuing tremor signal lasting ~ 2 h after the pulsing sequence. To investigate the eruption dynamics, we used a combination of cross-correlation and coherence methods with acoustic data. To estimate locations for the eruptive pulses, seismic data were collected and eruption vent locations were inferred through the use of an amplitude source location method. We also investigated volcanic acoustic–seismic ratios for comparing inferred initiation depths of each pulse. Initial results show vent locations for the eruptive pulses were found to have possibly come from two separate locations only ~ 50 m apart. These results compare favorably with acoustic lag time analysis. After error analysis, eruption sources are shown to conceivably come from a single vent, and differences in vent locations may not be constrained. Both vent location scenarios show that the eruption pulses gradually increase in strength with time, and that pulses 1, 3, 4, and 5 possibly came from a deeper source than pulses 2 and 6. We show herein that the characteristics and locations of volcanic eruptions can be better understood through joint analysis combining data from several data sources.
      252Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Origin of spurious single forces in the course mechanism of volcanic seismicity
    Single forces are often observed in the source mechanism of volcanic seismicity. However, their underlying causative processes are still doubtful. The reliability of single force observations must be assessed, prior to analyzing them in terms of physical mechanisms. Using numerical examples, we show that source mislocation and velocity mismodeling lead to strong spurious single forces. Layering in the velocity model produces converted S-waves and source mislocations modify the wavefield at the free surface (mainly through converted S- and surface waves). However, these waves can also be accurately reproduced in a homogeneous model by adding a vertical single force in the source mechanism, which mainly generates S-waves for large take-off angles. Hence approximate velocity models can lead to the appearance of strong single forces in source inversions. We conclude that, in moment tensor inversion, while single forces can be used in some cases to accommodate mismodeling errors, they cannot be reliably used to infer physical processes.
      174Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    Classification of long-term very long period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes at Whakaari/White Island volcano, New Zealand
    We have observed very long period earthquakes (VLPs) over the period 2007 to the end of 2019 at Whakaari/White Island volcano, New Zealand. The earthquakes exhibit similitude between waveforms which suggests repeating source locations and processes. VLPs recorded at two permanent stations were detected using waveform semblance and were then classified into two main families (F1 and F2) using a clustering analysis. The two families are characterized by ‘mirror image’ reverse waveform polarity suggesting that they are genetically related, but occur during different evolutionary phases of volcanic activity. F1 events occurred throughout the observation period, while F2 events mainly occurred as swarms that mark the onset of volcanic unrest. A detailed cluster analysis reveals possible sub-families implying slight temporal evolutions within a family. Our results add to our understanding of the volcanic magma–hydrothermal system at Whakaari/White Island indicating that relatively stable VLP sources may be exploited to improve monitoring for future unrest.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]
      73Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Time reverse location of seismic long-period events recorded on Mt Etna
    We present the first application of a time reverse location method in a volcanic setting, for a family of long-period events recorded on Mt Etna. Results are compared with locations determined using a full moment tensor grid search inversion and cross-correlation method. From June 18th to July 3rd, 2008, 50 broadband seismic stations were deployed on Mt Etna, Italy, in close proximity to the summit. Two families of long-period events were detected with dominant spectral peaks around 0.9 Hz. The large number of stations close to the summit allowed us to locate all events in both families using a time reversal location method. The method involves taking the seismic signal, reversing it in time, and using it as a seismic source in a numerical seismic wave simulator where the reversed signals propagate through the numerical model, interfere constructively and destructively, and focus on the original source location. The source location is the computational cell with the largest displacement magnitude at the time of maximum energy current density inside the grid. Before we located the two long-period families we first applied the method to two synthetic datasets and found a good fit between the time reverse location and true synthetic location for a known velocity model. The time reverse location results of the two families show a shallow seismic region close to the summit in agreement with the locations using a moment tensor full waveform inversion method and a cross-correlation location method.
      357Scopus© Citations 40