Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Locomotive biomechanics in persons with chronic ankle instabilityand lateral ankle sprain copers
    Objectives: To compare the locomotive biomechanics of participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) to those of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) copers. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Twenty-eight participants with CAI and 42 LAS copers each performed 5 self-selected paced gait trials. 3-D lower extremity temporal kinematic and kinetic data were collected for these participants from 200 ms pre- to 200 ms post-heel strike (period 1) and from 200 ms pre- to 200 ms post-toe off (period 2). Results: The CAI group displayed increased hip flexion bilaterally during period 1 compared to LAS copers. During period 2, CAI participants exhibited reduced hip extension bilaterally, increased knee flexion bilaterally and increased ankle inversion on the ‘involved’ limb. They also displayed a bilateral decrease in the flexor moment pattern at the knee. Conclusions: Considering that all of the features which distinguished CAI participants from LAS copers were also evident in our previously published research (within 2-weeks following acute first-time LAS); these findings establish a potential link between these features and long-term outcome following first-time LAS. Clinicians must be cognizant of the capacity for these movement and motor control impairments to cascade proximally from the injured joint up the kinetic chain and recognise the value that gait re-training may have in rehabilitation planning to prevent CAI.
      943Scopus© Citations 27
  • Publication
    Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain
    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched “involved”(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η2 = .34) and “uninvolved” (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η2 = .31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb = 1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb = 1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain.
      816Scopus© Citations 42
  • Publication
    Laboratory Measures of Postural Control During the Star Excursion Balance Test After Acute First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain
    Context: No researchers, to our knowledge, have investigated the immediate postinjury-movement strategies associated with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) as quantified by center of pressure (COP) and kinematic analyses during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Objective: To analyze the kinematic and COP patterns of a group with acute first-time LAS and a noninjured control group during performance of the SEBT. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. PATIENTS OR Other particpants: A total of 81 participants with acute first-time LAS (53 men, 28 women; age = 23.22 ± 4.93 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75.72 ± 13.86 kg) and 19 noninjured controls (15 men, 4 women; age = 22.53 ± 1.68 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 71.55 ± 11.31 kg). Intervention: Participants performed the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the SEBT. Main outcome Measure(s): We assessed 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity joints and associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path during performance of the SEBT. Results: The LAS group had decreased normalized reach distances in the ANT, PL, and PM directions when compared with the control group on their injured (ANT: 58.16% ± 6.86% versus 64.86% ± 5.99%; PL: 85.64% ± 10.62% versus 101.14% ± 8.39%; PM: 94.89% ± 9.26% versus 107.29 ± 6.02%) and noninjured (ANT: 60.98% ± 6.74% versus 64.76% ± 5.02%; PL: 88.95% ± 11.45% versus 102.36% ± 8.53%; PM: 97.13% ± 8.76% versus 106.62% ± 5.78%) limbs (P < .01). This observation was associated with altered temporal sagittal-plane kinematic profiles throughout each reach attempt and at the point of maximum reach (P < .05). This result was associated with a reduced FD of the COP path for each reach direction on the injured limb only (P < .05). Conclusions: Acute first-time LAS was associated with bilateral deficits in postural control, as evidenced by the bilateral reduction in angular displacement of the lower extremity joints and reduced reach distances and FD of the COP path on the injured limb during performance of the SEBT.
      408Scopus© Citations 52
  • Publication
    Lower extremity function during gait in participants with first time acute lateral ankle sprain compared to controls
    Laboratory analyses of chronic ankle instability populations during gait have elucidated a number of anomalous movement patterns. No current research exists analysing these movement patterns in a group in the acute phase of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. It is possible that participants with an acute LAS display movement patterns continuous with their chronically impaired counterparts. Sixty eight participants with acute LAS and nineteen non-injured participants completed five gait trials. 3D lower extremity temporal kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 200ms pre- to 200ms post-heel strike (period 1) and from 200ms pre- to 200ms post-toe off (period 2). During period 1, the LAS group displayed increased knee flexion with increased net extensor pattern at the knee joint, increased ankle inversion with a greater inversion moment, and reduced ankle plantar flexion, compared to the non-injured control group. During period 2, the LAS group displayed decreased hip extension with a decrease in the flexor moment at the hip, and decreased ankle plantar flexion with a decrease in the net plantar flexion moment, compared to the non-injured control group. These results indicate that participants with acute LAS display coordination strategies which may play a role in the onset of chronicity or recovery.
      919Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    The Incidence and Prevalence of Ankle Sprain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Epidemiological Studies
    Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, yet a contemporary review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies investigating ankle sprain does not exist. Objective: Our aim is to provide an up-to-date account of the incidence rate and prevalence period of ankle sprain injury unlimited by timeframe or context activity. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of English articles using relevant computerised databases. Search terms included Medical Search Headings for the ankle joint, injury and epidemiology. The following inclusion criteria were used: the study must report epidemiology findings of injuries sustained in an observed sample; the study must report ankle sprain injury with either incidence rate or prevalence period among the surveyed sample, or provide sufficient data from which these figures could be calculated; the study design must be prospective. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using pre-determined data fields. Results: One-hundred and eighty-one prospective epidemiology studies from 144 separate papers were included. The average rating of all the included studies was 6.67/11, based on an adapted version of the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for rating observational studies. 116 studies were considered high quality and 65 were considered low quality. The main findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated a higher incidence of ankle sprain in females compared with males (13.6 vs 6.94 per 1,000 exposures), in children compared with adolescents (2.85 vs 1.94 per 1,000 exposures) and adolescents compared with adults (1.94 vs 0.72 per 1,000 exposures). The sport category with the highest incidence of ankle sprain was indoor/court sports, with a cumulative incidence rate of 7 per 1,000 exposures or 1.37 per 1,000 athlete exposures and 4.9 per 1,000 h. Low-quality studies tended to underestimate the incidence of ankle sprain when compared with high-quality studies (0.54 vs 11.55 per 1,000 exposures). Ankle sprain prevalence period estimates were similar across sub-groups. Lateral ankle sprain was the most commonly observed type of ankle sprain. Conclusions: Females were at a higher risk of sustaining an ankle sprain compared with males and children compared with adolescents and adults, with indoor and court sports the highest risk activity. Studies at a greater risk of bias were more likely to underestimate the risk of ankle sprain. Participants were at a significantly higher risk of sustaining a lateral ankle sprain compared with syndesmotic and medial ankle sprains.
      11003Scopus© Citations 593
  • Publication
    Single-leg drop landing motor control strategies following acute ankle sprain injury
    No research currently exists investigating the effect of acute injury on single-limb landing strategies. The aim of the current study was to analyse the coordination strategies of participants in the acute phase of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. Thirty-seven participants with acute, first-time, LAS and nineteen uninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task (DL) on both limbs. 3-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200ms post IC. The peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) was also computed. Injured participants displayed a bilateral increase in hip flexion, with altered transverse plane kinematic profiles at the knee and ankle for both limbs (p < 0.05). This coincided with a reduction in the net supporting flexor moment of the lower extremity (p < 0.05) and magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for the injured limb (21.82 ± 2.44 N/kg vs 24.09 ± 2.77 N/kg; p = 0.013) in injured participants compared to control participants. These results demonstrate that compensatory movement strategies are utilized by participants with acute LAS to successfully reduce the impact forces of landing.
      1222Scopus© Citations 35
  • Publication
    Lower extremity coordination and symmetry patterns during a drop vertical jump task following acute ankle sprain
    Purpose: Evaluate the potentially adaptive movement patterns associated with acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) using biomechanical analyzes. Methods: Thirty participants with acute LAS and nineteen controls performed a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the hip, knee and ankle joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of force development (RFD) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. Results: The LAS group displayed reduced ankle plantar-flexion on their injured limb during phase 2 of the DVJ, with greater associated inter-limb asymmetry for this movement (p < .05). The LAS group also displayed altered kinetic profiles, with increased inter-limb hip asymmetry for both phases of the DVJ (p < .05). This was associated with a decrease in the LAS participants’ injured limb RFD during phase 2 of the DVJ when compared with that of controls (11.76 ± 3.43 BW/s vs 14.60 ± 3.20 BW/s; p = .01, η2 = 0.14). Conclusion: Participants with LAS display potentially aberrant coordination strategies during a DVJ as evidenced by an increased dependence on the non-injured limb.
      943Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Lower Limb Interjoint Postural Coordination One Year after First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain
    Introduction: Longitudinal analyses of participants with a history of lateral ankle sprain are lacking. This investigation combined measures of lower limb interjoint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate static unipedal stance with the eyes open (condition 1) and closed (condition 2) in a group of participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) compared to lateral ankle sprain ‘‘copers’’ (both recruited 12 months after sustaining an acute first-time lateral ankle sprain) and a group of noninjured controls. Methods: Twenty-eight participants with CAI, 42 lateral ankle sprain ‘‘copers,’’ and 20 noninjured controls completed three 20-s singlelimb stance trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb threedimensional kinematic data for similarity to establish patterns of interjoint coordination. The fractal dimension of the stance limb center of pressure path was also calculated. Results: Between-group analyses revealed that participants with CAI displayed notable increases in ankle–hip linked coordination compared with both lateral ankle sprain ‘‘copers’’ (j0.52 (1.05) vs 0.28 (0.9), P = 0.007) and controls (j0.52 (1.05) vs 0.63 (0.64), P = 0.006) in condition 1 and compared with controls only (0.62 (1.92) vs 0.1 (1.0) P = 0.002) in condition 2. Participants with CAI also exhibited a decrease in the fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path during condition 2 compared with both controls and lateral ankle sprain ‘‘copers.’’ Conclusions: Participants with CAI present with a hip-dominant strategy of eyes-open and eyes-closed static unipedal stance. This coincided with reduced complexity of the stance limb center of pressure path in the eyes-closed condition.
      469Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Dynamic balance deficits in individuals with chronic ankle instability compared to ankle sprain copers 1 year after a first-time lateral ankle sprain injury
    Purpose: To quantify the dynamic balance deficits that characterise a group with chronic ankle instability compared to lateral ankle sprain copers and non-injured controls using kinematic and kinetic outcomes. Methods: Forty-two participants with chronic ankle instability and twenty-eight lateral ankle sprain copers were initially recruited within 2 weeks of sustaining a first-time, acute lateral ankle sprain and required to attend our laboratory 1 year later to complete the current study protocol. An additional group of non-injured individuals were also recruited to act as a control group. All participants completed the anterior, posterior-lateral and posterior-medial reach directions of the star excursion balance test. Sagittal plane kinematics of the lower extremity and associated fractal dimension of the centre of pressure path were also acquired. Results: Participants with chronic ankle instability displayed poorer performance in the anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-lateral reach directions compared with controls bilaterally, and in the posterior-lateral direction compared with lateral ankle sprain copers on their ‘involved’ limb only. These performance deficits in the posterior-lateral and posterior-medial directions were associated with reduced flexion and dorsiflexion displacements at the hip, knee and ankle at the point of maximum reach, and coincided with reduced complexity of the centre of pressure path. Conclusion: In comparison with lateral ankle sprain copers and controls, participants with chronic ankle instability were characterised by dynamic balance deficits as measured using the SEBT. This was attested to reduced sagittal plane motions at the hip, knee and ankle joints, and reduced capacity of the stance limb to avail of its supporting base.
      1688Scopus© Citations 80
  • Publication
    Single-leg drop landing movement strategies in participants with chronic ankle instability compared with lateral ankle sprain 'copers'
    Individuals with CAI display alterations in hip joint kinematics and energetics during a unipodal landing task compared to LAS 'copers'. These alterations may be responsible for the increased risk of injury experienced by individuals with CAI during landing manoeuvres. Thus, clinicians must recognise the potential for joints proximal to the affected ankle to contribute to impaired function following an acute lateral ankle sprain injury and to develop rehabilitation protocols accordingly.
      1204Scopus© Citations 47