Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Training of adult psychiatrists and child and adolescent psychiatrists in europe: a systematic review of training characteristics and transition from child/adolescent to adult mental health services
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-06-13) ; ; ; ;
    Background: Profound clinical, conceptual and ideological differences between child and adult mental health service models contribute to transition-related discontinuity of care. Many of these may be related to psychiatry training. Methods: A systematic review on General Adult Psychiatry (GAP) and Child and Adult Psychiatry (CAP) training in Europe, with a particular focus on transition as a theme in GAP and CAP training. Results: Thirty-four full-papers, six abstracts and seven additional full text documents were identified. Important variations between countries were found across several domains including assessment of trainees, clinical and educational supervision, psychotherapy training and continuing medical education. Three models of training were identified: i) a generalist common training programme; ii) totally separate training programmes; iii) mixed types. Only two national training programs (UK and Ireland) were identified to have addressed transition as a topic, both involving CAP exclusively. Conclusion: Three models of training in GAP and CAP across Europe are identified, suggesting that the harmonization is not yet realised and a possible barrier to improving transitional care. Training in transition has only recently been considered. It is timely, topical and important to develop evidence-based training approaches on transitional care across Europe into both CAP and GAP training.
      397Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Managing the link and strengthening transition from child to adult mental health Care in Europe (MILESTONE): background, rationale and methodology
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-06-04) ; ; ; ;
    Background: Transition from distinct Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) is beset with multitude of problems affecting continuity of care for young people with mental health needs. Transition-related discontinuity of care is a major health, socioeconomic and societal challenge globally. The overall aim of the Managing the Link and Strengthening Transition from Child to Adult Mental Health Care in Europe (MILESTONE) project (2014-19) is to improve transition from CAMHS to AMHS in diverse healthcare settings across Europe. MILESTONE focuses on current service provision in Europe, new transition-related measures, long term outcomes of young people leaving CAMHS, improving transitional care through 'managed transition', ethics of transitioning and the training of health care professionals. Methods: Data will be collected via systematic literature reviews, pan-European surveys, and focus groups with service providers, users and carers, and members of youth advocacy and mental health advocacy groups. A prospective cohort study will be conducted with a nested cluster randomised controlled trial in eight European Union (EU) countries (Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, UK) involving over 1000 CAMHS users, their carers, and clinicians. Discussion: Improving transitional care can facilitate not only recovery but also mental health promotion and mental illness prevention for young people. MILESTONE will provide evidence of the organisational structures and processes influencing transition at the service interface across differing healthcare models in Europe and longitudinal outcomes for young people leaving CAMHS, solutions for improving transitional care in a cost-effective manner, training modules for clinicians, and commissioning and policy guidelines for service providers and policy makers.
      327Scopus© Citations 38
  • Publication
    A systematic review of the literature on ethical aspects of transitional care between child- and adult-orientated health services
    Background: Healthcare policy and academic literature have promoted improving the transitional care of young people leaving child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). Despite the availability of guidance on good practice, there seems to be no readily accessible, coherent ethical analysis of transition. The ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, justice and respect for autonomy can be used to justify the need for further enquiry into the ethical pros and cons of this drive to improve transitional care. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to systematically search for existing ethical literature on child- to adult-orientated health service transitions and to critically appraise and collate the literature, whether empirical or normative. Methods: A wide range of bioethics, biomedical and legal databases, grey literature and bioethics journals were searched. Ancestral and forward searches of identified papers were undertaken. Key words related to transition, adolescence and young adulthood, ethics, law and health. The timeframe was January 2000 to at least March 2016. Titles, abstracts and, where necessary, full articles were screened and duplicates removed. All included articles were critically appraised and a narrative synthesis produced. Results: Eighty two thousand four hundred eighty one titles were screened, from which 96 abstracts were checked. Forty seven full documents were scrutinised, leading to inclusion of two papers. Ancestral and forward searches yielded four further articles. In total, one commentary, three qualitative empirical studies and two clinical ethics papers were found. All focused on young people with complex care needs and disabilities. The three empirical papers had methodological flaws. The two ethical papers were written from a clinical ethics context rather than using a bioethical format. No literature identified specifically addressed the ethical challenges of balancing the delivery of transitional care to those who need it and the risk of pathologizing transient and self-limited distress and dysfunction, which may be normal during adolescence. Conclusions: There is very little research on ethical aspects of transitional care. Most existing studies come from services for young people with complex care needs and disabilities. There is much scope for improvement in the amount and quality of empirical research and ethical analysis in this area.
      291Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    An exploration of sleep and family factors in young children at familial risk for ADHD
    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine relations between sleep problems and family factors and early markers of ADHD in young children with and without a familial risk for ADHD. Methods: Differences in sleep behavior and family functioning in children under 6 years with (n = 72) and without (n = 139) a familial risk for ADHD were investigated. The influence of family and sleep factors on the development of early temperament markers of ADHD (effortful control and negative affect) was explored. Parents/caregivers completed questionnaires on family functioning, child sleep behavior, and general regulatory behaviors. Results: A significant difference was observed between high-risk and low-risk groups for family functioning in the infant/toddler (<3 years) and preschool (>3 years) cohorts. Parents of infants/toddlers in the high-risk group reported poorer infant sleep. However, there were no sleep differences reported for the preschool cohort. Family functioning was found to predict effortful control, while sleep quality predicted negative affect. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight potential family and sleep issues for young children with a familial history of ADHD and the potential influence of these factors on early temperament markers of ADHD. Future research should explore these relations further in order to better establish whether early sleep and family interventions could mitigate later ADHD symptomatology.
    Scopus© Citations 3  454
  • Publication
    Attitudes and reported practice of paediatricians and child psychiatrists regarding the assessment and treatment of ADHD in Ireland
    Objectives: This mixed-method national survey has obtained original data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) attitudes, assessment and treatment regimes reported by paediatricians and child psychiatrists; and has compared their clinics. It has examined the extent of involvement of Irish paediatricians in the management of ADHD. Methods: A questionnaire was designed, based on a review of literature and ADHD guidelines, and piloted by expert clinicians. Universal recruitment was conducted among Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) consultants (n = 71) and community/general paediatric consultants (n = 72). Quantitative and qualitative data was collected and analysed. Results: There was an overall response rate of 43%. A dedicated ADHD clinic is offered in 79% of CAMHS services, but only in one paediatric service. Participants reported that the assessment of ADHD involves multidisciplinary work and this was only established in CAMHS clinics. Medication is initiated by 82% of child psychiatrists and only 22% of paediatricians. Conclusions: This first national study of ADHD attitudes and practices presents comprehensive data regarding the management of children with ADHD in CAMHS and paediatric settings in Ireland. Paediatricians reported a minor role in managing ADHD. Study limitations are related to subjective reporting rather than case note audit, and a moderate response rate for the paediatricians’ participants.
      760Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Lived Experiences of Diagnostic Shifts in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Contexts: a Qualitative Interview Study with Young People and Parents
    (Springer Nature, 2020-08) ;
    Psychiatric diagnoses are important resources in helping young people and families make sense of emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, the poor reliability of diagnoses in childhood means many young service-users experience their diagnosis being removed, revised or supplemented over time. No previous research has investigated how young service-users experience, understand or respond to alteration of their original diagnosis. The current study adopted a qualitative approach to explore the lived experience of diagnostic shifts in child and adolescent mental health contexts. Narrative interviews were conducted with families living in Ireland, who had direct experience of diagnostic shifts. Participants included 21 parents (19 female) and 14 young people (8 female, mean age=14). Thematic analysis explored the range of interpretations and implications of diagnostic shifts in families’ lives, identifying three themes that underpinned participants’ narratives. Diverse Trajectories & Experiences outlined the variety of contexts for diagnostic shifts, ways they were communicated to parents and young people, and their clinical consequences. A Process of Readjustment captured processes of emotional and conceptual adaptation in the aftermath of a diagnostic shift. Finally, Social Repositioning explored how diagnostic shifts could prompt changes to interpersonal relations, social identity and stigma experiences. The study shows that diagnostic shifts carry significant emotional, social and practical repercussions. While diagnostic shifts may threaten the therapeutic relationship and service-user understanding, they also offer opportunities to enhance young people’s self-concept, social relationships and therapeutic engagement. Clinician awareness of the socio-emotional implications of diagnostic shifts is vital to inform sensitive communication and support strategies.
      731Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    What Differentiates Children with ADHD Symptoms Who Do and Do Not Receive a Formal Diagnosis? Results from a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study
    ADHD diagnoses are increasing worldwide, in patterns involving both overdiagnosis of some groups and underdiagnosis of others. The current study uses data from a national longitudinal study of Irish children (N = 8568) to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and psychological variables that differentiate children with high hyperactivity/inattention symptoms, who had and had not received a diagnosis of ADHD. Analysis identified no significant differences in the demographic characteristics or socio-emotional wellbeing of 9-year-olds with hyperactivity/inattention who had and who had not received a diagnosis of ADHD. However, by age 13, those who had held a diagnosis at 9 years showed more emotional and peer relationship problems, worse prosocial behaviour, and poorer self-concept. Further research is required to clarify the developmental pathways responsible for these effects.
    Scopus© Citations 9  379
  • Publication
    How does psychiatric diagnosis affect young people's self-concept and social identity? A systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature
    Receiving a psychiatric diagnosis in childhood or adolescence can have numerous social, emotional and practical repercussions. Among the most important of these are the implications for a young person's self-concept and social identity. To ensure diagnoses are communicated and managed in a way that optimally benefits mental health trajectories, understanding young people's first-hand experience of living with a diagnosis is paramount. This systematic review collates, evaluates and synthesises the qualitative research that has explored how psychiatric diagnosis interacts with young people's self-concept and social identity. A search of 10 electronic databases identified 3892 citations, 38 of which met inclusion criteria. The 38 studies were generally evaluated as moderate-to-high quality research. Thematic synthesis of their findings highlighted the multifaceted ways diagnosis affects young people's self-concept and social identity. Diagnosis can sometimes threaten and devalue young people's self-concept, but can also facilitate self-understanding, self-legitimation and self-enhancement. A diagnosis can lead to social alienation, invalidation and stigmatisation, yet can also promote social identification and acceptance. Further research is needed to clarify which self and identity outcomes can be expected in a given set of circumstances, and to establish how self and identity effects interact with diagnoses’ other clinical, practical, social and emotional consequences.
      1467Scopus© Citations 60
  • Publication
    Increased Mental Health Presentations by Children Aged 5-15 at Emergency Departments during the first 12 months of COVID-19
    Aims To determine changes in mental health (MH) attendance at Emergency Departments (ED) by children aged five to 15 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Analysis of MH presentations during the first year of the pandemic compared with prior year for three public paediatric EDs serving the greater Dublin area with a paediatric population of 430,000. Results Overall, ED attendance during the 12 months to 28th February 2021 was 34.3% below prior year, while MH presentations were 8.9% above prior year. MH attendances initially decreased by 26.8% (2020: 303; 2019: 414) during the first four months of the pandemic (March to June), lower than the corresponding decrease of 47.9% for presentations for any reason (2020: 11,530; 2019: 22,128). However, MH presentations increased by 52.4% in July and August (2020: 218; 2019: 143), and by 45.6% in September to December (2020: 552 ;2019: 379), dropping 28.1% below prior year in January (2021: 87; 2020: 121) before returning to prior year levels in February 2021 (2021: 107; 2020: 106). Conclusion Following the initial COVID-19 lockdown, ED presentations by children for acute MH care increased significantly over prior year, with this increase sustained throughout 2020. Long-term stressors linked to the pandemic may be leading to chronic MH problems, warranting increased funding of MH services as part of the response to COVID-19.
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