Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Publication
    Differential regulation of RhoA-mediated signaling by the TPalpha and TPbeta isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor : independent modulation of TPalpha signaling by prostacyclin and nitric oxide
    In humans, thromboxane (TX) A2 signals through the TPalpha and TPbeta isoforms of the TXA2 receptor that exhibit common and distinct roles. For example, Gq/phospholipase (PL)Cbeta signaling by TPalpha is directly inhibited by the vasodilators prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) whereas that signaling by TPbeta is unaffected. Herein, we investigated whether TPalpha and/or TPbeta regulate G12/Rho activation and whether that signaling might be differentially regulated by prostacyclin and/or NO. Both TPalpha and TPbeta independently regulated RhoA activation and signaling in clonal cells over-expressing TPalpha or TPbeta and in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (1o AoSMCs). While RhoA- signaling by TPalpha was directly impaired by prostacyclin and NO through protein kinase (PK)A- and PKG-dependent phosphorylation, respectively, signaling by TPbeta was not directly affected by either agent. Collectively, while TPalpha and TPbeta contribute to RhoA activation, our findings support the hypothesis that TPalpha is involved in the dynamic regulation of haemostasis and vascular tone, such as in response to prostacyclin and NO. Conversely, the role of TPbeta in such processes remains unsolved. Data herein provide essential new insights into the physiologic roles of TPalpha and TPbeta and, through studies in AoSMCs, reveal an additional mode of regulation of VSM contractile responses by TXA2.
      624Scopus© Citations 35
  • Publication
    Transcriptional regulation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene by Wilms' tumor (WT)1 and hypermethylated in cancer (HIC) 1 in prostate and breast cancers
    The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A2 plays a central role in hemostasis and is increasingly implicated in neoplastic disease, including prostate and breast cancers. In humans, TXA2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the T prostanoid receptor, two structurally related receptors transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters, Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TP gene. Focusing on TPα, the current study investigated its expression and transcriptional regulation through Prm1 in prostate and breast cancers. Expression of TPα correlated with increasing prostate and breast tissue tumor grade while the TXA2 mimetic U46619 promoted both proliferation and migration of the respective prostate (PC3) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231) derived-carcinoma cell lines. Through 5′ deletional and genetic reporter analyses, several functional upstream repressor regions (URRs) were identified within Prm1 in PC3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells while site-directed mutagenesis identified the tumor suppressors Wilms' tumor (WT)1 and hypermethylated in cancer (HIC) 1 as the trans-acting factors regulating those repressor regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies confirmed that WT1 binds in vivo to multiple GC-enriched WT1 cis-elements within the URRs of Prm1 in PC3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, ChIP analyses established that HIC1 binds in vivo to the HIC1(b)cis-element within Prm1 in PC3 and MCF-7 cells but not in the MDA-MB-231 carcinoma line. Collectively, these data establish that WT1 and HIC1, both tumor suppressors implicated in prostate and breast cancers, transcriptionally repress TPα expression and thereby provide a strong genetic basis for understanding the role of TXA2 in the progression of certain human cancers.
      590Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Identification of a novel endoplasmic reticulum export motif within the eighth alpha-helical domain (alpha-H8) of the human prostacyclin receptor
    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) undergoes agonist-dependent trafficking involving a direct interaction with Rab11a GTPase. The region of interaction was localised to a 14 residue Rab11a binding domain (RBD) within the proximal carboxyl-terminal (C)-tail domain of the hIP, consisting of Val299 – Val307 within the eighth helical domain (alpha-H8) adjacent to the palmitoylated residues at Cys308 – Cys311. However, the factors determining the anterograde transport of the newly synthesised hIP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) have not been identified. The aim of the current study was to identify the major ER export motif(s) within the hIP initially by investigating the role of Lys residues in its maturation and processing. Through site-directed and Ala-scanning mutational studies in combination with analyses of protein expression and maturation, functional analyses of ligand binding, agonist-induced intracellular signalling and confocal image analyses, it was determined that Lys297, Arg302 and Lys304 located within alpha-H8 represent the critical determinants of a novel ER export motif of the hIP. Furthermore, while substitution of those critical residues significantly impaired maturation and processing of the hIP, replacement of the positively charged Lys with Arg residues, and vice versa, was functionally permissible. Hence, this study has identified a novel 8 residue ER export motif within the functionally important alpha-H8 of the hIP. This ER export motif, defined by ‘K/R(X)4K/R(X)K/R’, has a strict requirement for positively charged, basic Lys/Arg residues at the 1st, 6th and 8th positions and appears to be evolutionarily conserved within IP sequences from mouse to man.
  • Publication
    Regulated expression of the α isoform of the human thromboxane A2 receptor during megakaryocyte differentiation : a coordinated role for WT1, Egr1 & Sp1
    Thromboxane plays an essential role in haemostasis, regulating platelet aggregation and vessel tone. In humans, it signals through the TPalpha and TPbeta isoforms that are transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters, Prm1 and Prm3, respectively. Herein, the consequence of megakaryocytic differentiation on Prm1-directed TPα expression was investigated. Phorbol ester (PMA) treatment substantially increased TPα mRNA and Prm1-directed gene expression in human erythroleukemia (HEL) and K562 cells. Deletional analyses localized the major responsive element(s) to the upstream -8500 and -7504 region while mutation of four WT1/Egr1/Sp1 cis-elements therein established that each contribute to the induction. Moreover, PMA increased Egr1, but not WT1 or Sp1, expression while the NAB1 co-repressor impaired PMA-induction of Egr1 and Prm1-directed gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitations established that WT1 is predominantly bound in vivo to the 5’ Prm1 region in non-differentiated HEL cells. In response to PMA, there was initial induction in Egr1 and associated reduction in WT1 binding to Prm1 in vivo which was displaced by Sp1 following sustained treatment. Collectively, data establish that regulated WT1 followed by sequential Egr1 and Sp1 binding to elements within Prm1 mediate repression and subsequent induction of TPα during differentiation into the megakaryocytic phenotype, shedding significant insights into factors regulating TPa expression therein.
      289Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Interaction of the Human Prostacyclin Receptor and the NHERF4 Family member Intestinal and Kidney Enriched PDZ Protein (IKEPP)
    Prostacyclin and its I Prostanoid receptor, the IP, play central roles in haemostasis and in re-endothelialization in response to vascular injury. Herein, Intestinal and Kidney Enriched PDZ Protein (IKEPP) was identified as an interactant of the human (h) IP mediated through binding of PDZ domain 1 (PDZD1) and, to a lesser extent, PDZD2 of IKEPP to a carboxyl-terminal Class I ‘PDZ ligand’ within the hIP. While the interaction is constitutive, agonist-activation of the hIP leads to cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK) A and PKC- phosphorylation of IKEPP, coinciding with its increased interaction with the hIP. Ectopic expression of IKEPP increases functional expression of the hIP, enhancing its ligand binding and agonist-induced cAMP generation. Originally thought to be restricted to renal and gastrointestinal tissues, herein, IKEPP was also found to be expressed in vascular endothelial cells where it co-localizes and complexes with the hIP. Furthermore, siRNA-disruption of IKEPP expression impaired hIP-induced endothelial cell migration and in vitro angiogenesis, revealing the functional importance of the IKEPP:IP interaction within the vascular endothelium. Identification of IKEPP as a functional interactant of the IP reveals novel mechanistic insights into the role of these proteins within the vasculature and, potentially, in other systems where they are co-expressed.
      374Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Interaction of the human prostacyclin receptor with the PDZ adapter protein PDZK : role in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis
    (American Society for Cell Biology, 2011-06-08) ; ; ;
    Prostacyclin is increasingly implicated in re-endothelialization and angiogenesis but through largely unknown mechanisms. Herein, the HDL scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1) adapter protein PDZ domain-containing protein 1 (PDZK1) was identified as an interactant of the human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) involving a Class I PDZ ligand at its carboxyl-terminus and PDZ domains 1, 3 and 4 of PDZK1. While the interaction is constitutive, it may be dynamically regulated following cicaprost-activation of the hIP through a mechanism involving cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK)A-phosphorylation of PDZK1 at Ser505. While PDZK1 did not increase overall levels of the hIP, it increased its functional expression at the cell surface enhancing ligand binding and cicaprost-induced cAMP generation. Consistent with its role in re-endothelialization and angiogenesis, cicaprost-activation of the hIP increased endothelial cell migration and tube formation/in vitro angiogenesis, effects completely abrogated by the specific IP antagonist RO1138452. Furthermore, similar to HDL/SR-B1, siRNA-targeted disruption of PDZK1 abolished cicaprost-mediated endothelial responses but did not affect VEGF-responses. Considering the essential role played by prostacyclin throughout the cardiovascular system, identification of PDZK1 as a functional interactant of the hIP sheds significant mechanistic insights into the protective roles of these key players, and potentially HDL/SR-B1, within the vascular endothelium.
    Scopus© Citations 25  722
  • Publication
    Prostacyclin receptors: Transcriptional regulation and novel signalling mechanisms
    The prostanoid Prostacyclin plays diverse physiologic roles within the vasculature and other systems, and is widely implicated in several cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal diseases. Despite this, knowledge of the factors regulating expression of the I prostanoid receptor (the IP) remained largely unknown. This review details recent advances in understanding the key transcriptional regulators determining expression of the PTGIR gene in the human vasculature and the identification of novel interacting partners of the IP that impact on its function therein. Included in this are the trans-acting factors that regulate expression of the PTGIR under basal- and regulated-conditions, particularly those determining its up-regulation in response to cellular differentiation, estrogen and low serum-cholesterol. Moreover, the functional implications of the interactions between the IP with PDZK1, a multi PDZ-domain containing protein essential for reverse-cholesterol transport and endothelialization, and the IP with IKEPP, the intestinal and kidney enriched PDZ protein, for the role of the prostacyclin-IP axis within the vasculature are reviewed.
      679Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    Interaction of angio-associated migratory cell protein with the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor
    In humans, thromboxane (TX) A2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of its G-protein coupled TXA2 receptor (TP) to mediate a host of (patho)physiologic responses. Herein, angio-associated migratory cell protein (AAMP) was identified as a novel interacting partner of both TPα and TPβ through an interaction dependent on common (residues 312-328) and unique (residues 366-392 of TPβ) sequences within their carboxyl-terminal (C)-tail domains. While the interaction was constitutive in mammalian cells, agonist-stimulation of TPα/TPβ led to a transient dissociation of AAMP from immune complexes which coincided with a transient redistribution of AAMP from its localization in an intracellular fibrous network. Although the GTPase RhoA is a downstream effector of both AAMP and the TPs, AAMP did not influence TP-mediated RhoA or vice versa. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated disruption of AAMP expression decreased migration of primary human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (1° hCoASMCs). Moreover, siRNA-disruption of AAMP significantly impaired 1° hCoASMC migration in the presence of the TXA2 mimetic U46619 but did not affect VEGF-mediated cell migration. Given their roles within the vasculature, the identification of a specific interaction between TPα/TPβ and AAMP is likely to have substantial functional implications for vascular pathologies in which they are both implicated.
      1113Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Identification of an interaction between the TPalpha and TPbeta isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor with protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) 1 : implications for prostate cancer.
    In humans, thromboxane (TX)A2 signals through the TPalpha and TPbeta isoforms of the TXA2 receptor, or TP. Herein, the RhoA effector protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) 1 was identified as an interactant of both TPalpha and TPbeta involving common and unique sequences within their respective carboxyl-terminal (C)-tail domains and the kinase domain of PRK1 (PRK1640-942). While the interaction with PRK1 is constitutive, agonist-activation of TPalpha/TPbeta did not regulate the complex per se but enhanced PRK1 activation leading to phosphorylation of its general substrate histone H1 in vitro. Altered PRK1 and TP expression and signalling are increasingly implicated in certain neoplasms, particularly in androgen-associated prostate carcinomas. Agonist-activation of TPalpha/TPbeta led to phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 (H3Thr11), a previously recognized specific marker of androgen induced-chromatin remodeling, in the prostate LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines but not in primary vascular smooth muscle or endothelial cells. Moreover, this effect was augmented by dihydrotestosterone in androgen-responsive LNCaP but not in non-responsive PC-3 cells. Furthermore, PRK1 was confirmed to constitutively interact with TPalpha/TPbeta in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells and targeted disruption of PRK1 impaired TPalpha/TPbeta-mediated H3Thr11 phosphorylation in, and cell migration of, both prostate cell types. Collectively, considering the role of TXA2 as a potent mediator of RhoA signalling, the identification of PRK1 as a bone fide interactant of TPalpha/TPbeta, and leading to H3Thr11 phosphorylation to regulate cell migration, has broad functional significance such as within the vasculature and in neoplasms in which both PRK1 and the TPs are increasingly implicated.
      278Scopus© Citations 24
  • Publication
    Recycling of the human prostacyclin receptor is regulated through a direct interaction with Rab11a GTPase
    The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) undergoes agonist-induced internalization but the mechanisms regulating its intracellular trafficking and/or recycling to the plasma membrane are poorly understood. Herein, we conducted a yeast-two-hybrid screen to identify proteins interacting with the carboxyl terminal (C)-tail domain of the hIP and discovered a novel interaction with Rab11a. This interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations in mammalian HEK293 and was augmented by cicaprost stimulation. The hIP co-localized to Rab11-containing recycling endosomes in both HEK293 and endothelial EA.hy 926 cells in a time dependent manner following cicaprost stimulation. Moreover, over-expression of Rab11a significantly increased recycling of the hIP, while the dominant negative Rab11S25N impaired that recycling. Conversely, while the hIP co-localized to Rab4-positive endosomes in response to cicaprost, ectopic expression of Rab4a did not substantially affect overall recycling nor did Rab4a directly interact with the hIP. The specific interaction between the hIP and Rab11a was dependent on a 22 amino acid (Val299 – Gln320) sequence within its C-tail domain and was independent of isoprenylation of the hIP. This study elucidates a critical role for Rab11a in regulating trafficking of the hIP and has identified a novel Rab11 binding-domain (RBD) within its C-tail domain that is both necessary and sufficient to mediate interaction with Rab11a.
      692Scopus© Citations 29