Now showing 1 - 10 of 76
  • Publication
    Doctors’ fees in Ireland following the change in reimbursement : did they jump?
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2005-11)
    This paper analyses the pure time-series properties of doctors’ fees in Ireland to assess whether a structural change in the series is observed at the time of the change in reimbursement in 1989. Such a break would be consistent with doctors responding to the reimbursement change in a manner predicted by supplier-induced-demand behaviour and would provide indirect evidence that such inducement had taken place. Structural change is assessed on the basis of CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests. The data is also analysed for the presence of unusually influential observations. In neither case are the results consistent with a break around the time of the introduction of the change.
  • Publication
    The Socioeconomic Determinants of Mental Stress in Ireland
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2012-08)
    This paper reviews Irish evidence on the link between socioeconomic factors and various measures of mental stress and well-being. The paper reviews both cross-section and time-series studies and finds that of all socioeconomic determinants, the most consistent role is found for unemployment. In general, stronger results are found for males than for females, but the time series evidence suggests that the relationship between suicide and unemployment appears to be weakening.
  • Publication
    Winners and losers on the roller-coaster: Ireland, 2003-2011
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2013-09)
    This paper applies the methodology of Ravallion and Chen in calculating growth incidence curves for Ireland over the 2003-2011 period, using measures of equivalised disposable income from the Survey of Income and Living Conditions (SILC). These curves provide an indication of growth at different percentiles of the distribution and may be used to address the issue of whether growth was pro-poor or not. The analysis suggests that growth was broadly pro-poor over the period as a whole and also over two sub-periods of 2003-2007 and 2008-2011, reflecting periods of boom and recession respectively. However, the results must be qualified by the fact that the income measure may not completely capture living standards as it deals incompletely with housing costs and state provided services.
  • Publication
    Tobacco taxes and starting and quitting smoking : does the effect differ by education?
    (Economic and Social Research Institute, 2003)
    This paper uses duration analysis to investigate the role of tobacco taxes in starting and quitting smoking. Applying a variety of parametric duration models, including a split population model, to a sample of Irish women, it finds that in general tobacco taxes do influence starting and quitting smoking in the expected direction. It also finds that the effect for starting differs by education but in a non-monotonic way, with the greatest effect for women with intermediate levels of education. The results for quitting suggest the greatest effect for women with the lowest level of education. These results are not changed when account is taken of unobserved heterogeneity.
  • Publication
    Labour supply, commodity demand and marginal tax reform
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 1993-12)
    This paper examines the implications of extending the Ahmad-Stern (1984) model of indirect tax reform to include labor supply. The inclusion of labor supply alters the basic measure of marginal revenue cost of indirect taxation and introduces the possibility of calculating a marginal revenue cost for direct taxation. The paper derives the expressions for these revised marginal revenue costs and provides estimates from Irish data. It then examines the sensitivity of the results to assumptions regarding functional form and, in particular, goods/leisure separability.
  • Publication
    Mind the Gap: Revisiting the Concentration Index for Overweight
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2017-10)
    Much analysis of the socioeconomic gradient of overweight/obesity has involved the calculation of concentration indices for the incidence of these conditions. However this analysis ignores the severity of the conditions, in particular whether there is a gradient to how far are people above the relevant thresholds. Calculation of the concentration index for severity based measures for a dataset for Ireland reveals a much stronger gradient than for the incidence based measures. It is recommended that analysis of severity should always accompany analysis of the incidence of overweight/obesity.
  • Publication
    Omitted variables, dynamic specification and tests for homogeneity
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 1994-08)
    This note examines the sensitivity of tests for homogeneity in demand systems to such factors as omitted variables and dynamic and stochastic specification. It estimates demand systems for Ireland using time-series data for different unconditional demand systems with differing dynamic and stochastic specification and also estimates a conditional demand system, thus attempting to reconcile disparate results from previous work in this area.
  • Publication
  • Publication
    The Socioeconomic Gradient of Cognitive Test Scores: Evidence from Two Cohorts of Irish Children
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2020-06)
    There is a well-established socioeconomic gradient in cognitive test scores for children. This gradient emerges at very early ages and there is also some evidence that it can widen as children age. We investigate this phenomenon with two longitudinal cohorts of Irish children who take such tests at ages ranging from 9 months to 17 years, using maternal education and equivalised income as our measure of socioeconomic resources. The gradient is observed from about 3 years and there is some tentative evidence that it widens as children get older. We have evidence on a wide range of tests and there is some evidence that the gradient is slightly stronger for tests involving crystalised as opposed to fluid intelligence. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the data, we also investigate mobility across the distribution of test scores and there is some evidence that such mobility is less among poorer children raising the disturbing possibility that such children could become trapped in low achievement.