Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
  • Publication
    Helping Kids! Cross-Cultural Research on Children’s Prosocial Behavior in Societies Transitioning to Peace
    Intrastate conflicts dominate the twenty-first century. Understanding the psychological mechanisms necessary to transform such settings into more peaceful societies is essential. Toward that end, Helping Kids! is a cross-cultural project that focuses on children in conflict-affected contexts. Moving away from the conceptualization of youth as perpetrators or powerless victims, Helping Kids! recognizes that children can foster a peaceful future, despite growing up in the shadow of war. This chapter approaches peace holistically and understands it as not merely the absence of violence, exploring a conceptualization of positive peace. In line with this understanding, Helping Kids! goes beyond reducing prejudice to focus on intergroup prosocial acts. The chapter first outlines how outgroup prosociality can be understood as an antecedent of peacebuilding, then presents evidence from elementary school-aged children in five different contexts of intergroup conflict (Northern Ireland, Croatia, Kosovo, Republic of North Macedonia, and Israel) to reflect both the complexity and diversity of this area of research. We highlight both the common characteristics as well as differences across the Helping Kids! contexts and how children can contribute to a transition to peace. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future research and practice.
  • Publication
    Emplaced Partnerships and the Ethics of Care, Recognition and Resilience
    We began this special issue (SI) with the provocative aim ‘to put partnerships in their place’. Our intention was to create a forum where scholars from the domains of cross-sector partnerships (CSPs), place, and business ethics could combine their interests, advance novel theoretical and empirical insights, and reimagine a research agenda that explores CSPs from a place-based perspective. The aim of the SI is to bring to the fore the places in which CSPs are formed; how place shapes the dynamics of CSPs, and how CSPs shape the specific settings in which they develop. The papers of this issue collectively succeed in putting partnerships in their place by revealing the work involved in achieving this emplacement, each presenting a vivid illustration of how CSPs engage morally and materially with place, ranging from land to water, organized to wild spaces, and villages to transnational communities. The special issue offers new contributions to explaining how place enables and constrains organizing (Cartel et al., 2022; Lawrence, 2017), and it demonstrates that engaging with grand challenges such as climate change (Bowen et al., 2018) can enrich CSP theory in settings with entrenched inequality (Powell et al., 2018) and fragility (Welter et al., 2018). At a societal level, our SI connects critical sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially SDGs 3 (Good Health and Well-being), 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), 14 (Life below Water), 15 (Life on Land), and 17 (Partnerships). It also provides actionable insights into how firms address grand challenges in different contexts and at different scales (Chatterjee et al., 2022).
  • Publication
    Barriers to Uptake of Open-Source Automated Insulin Delivery Systems: Analysis of Socioeconomic Factors and Perceived Challenges of Caregivers of Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes From the OPEN Survey
    As a treatment option for people living with diabetes, automated insulin delivery (AID) systems are becoming increasingly popular. The #WeAreNotWaiting community plays a crucial role in the provision and distribution of open-source AID technology. However, while a large percentage of children were early adopters of open-source AID, there are regional differences in adoption, which has prompted an investigation into the barriers perceived by caregivers of children with diabetes to creating open-source systems.Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional and multinational study conducted with caregivers of children and adolescents with diabetes, distributed across the online #WeAreNotWaiting online peer-support groups. Participants-specifically caregivers of children not using AID-responded to a web-based questionnaire concerning their perceived barriers to building and maintaining an open-source AID system. Results: 56 caregivers of children with diabetes, who were not using open-source AID at the time of data collection responded to the questionnaire. Respondents indicated that their major perceived barriers to building an open-source AID system were their limited technical skills (50%), a lack of support by medical professionals (39%), and therefore the concern with not being able to maintain an AID system (43%). However, barriers relating to confidence in open-source technologies/unapproved products and fear of digital technology taking control of diabetes were not perceived as significant enough to prevent non-users from initiating the use of an open-source AID system. Conclusions: The results of this study elucidate some of the perceived barriers to uptake of open-source AID experienced by caregivers of children with diabetes. Reducing these barriers may improve the uptake of open-source AID technology for children and adolescents with diabetes. With the continuous development and wider dissemination of educational resources and guidance-for both aspiring users and their healthcare professionals-the adoption of open-source AID systems could be improved.
  • Publication
    Barriers to uptake of Open-Source automated insulin delivery Systems: Analysis of socioeconomic factors and perceived challenges of adults with type 1 diabetes from the OPEN survey
    Aims: Social and technical trends are empowering people with diabetes to co-create or self-develop medical devices and treatments to address their unmet healthcare needs, for example, open-source automated insulin delivery (AID) systems. This study aims to investigate the perceived barriers towards adoption and maintaining of open-source AID systems. Methods: This is a multinational study based on a cross-sectional, retrospective web-based survey of non-users of open-source AID. Participants (n = 129) with type 1 diabetes from 31 countries were recruited online to elicit their perceived barriers towards building and maintaining of an open-source AID system. Results: Sourcing the necessary components, lack of confidence in one's own technology knowledge and skills, perceived time and energy required to build a system, and fear of losing healthcare provider support appear to be major barriers towards the uptake of open-source AID. Conclusions: This study identified a range of structural and individual-level barriers to uptake of open-source AID. Some of these individual-level barriers may be overcome over time through the peer support of the DIY online community as well as greater acceptance of open-source innovation among healthcare professionals. The findings have important implications for understanding the possible wider diffusion of open-source diabetes technology solutions in the future.
  • Publication
    The impact of COVID-19 upon student radiographers and clinical training in Latin America
    Introduction: This study aimed to identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic upon radiography education across Latin American countries. Methods: A survey containing 20 questions was circulated to radiography students, across 13 universities in 11 countries of Latin America using Google Forms. The survey contained open and closed questions. Answers were analysed with descriptive statistics and the methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis for the open answers. Results: Of the 1310 responses only 23.9% (n = 313) of students reported attending clinical placements and from this cohort only 8.9% (n = 28) became infected with COVID-19. In response to how the pandemic had impacted upon the students’ academic progression, the most common topic in the open answers was “Concerns about the lack of clinical training”, mentioned by 629 students. Students in middle and later years of their radiography education expressed the greatest concern about future clinical placements. Almost all radiography students (95.2%/n = 1247) indicated that their main concerns regarding COVID-19 infection while undertaking clinical placements was in relation to the risk of infecting their families as most students stated they cohabited with relatives (86.6%/n = 1134). Conclusion: Compared to European findings co-habitation trends increased anxiety related to infection and impacted their mental health. Students expressed concern about the quality of education they were receiving during the pandemic and access to resources to facilitate on-line learning was inadequate. Socio-economic and internet connectivity factors specific to Latin America were identified and these issues need to be addressed if on-line education is required in the future. Implications for practice: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted Latin America and this study identifies the implications for radiography students related to their clinical and academic training and highlights factors which require consideration to support radiography students as the pandemic continues.
      12Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Education and training in radiation protection in Europe: an analysis from the EURAMED rocc-n-roll project
    Background: A Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was performed to understand the status quo of education and training in radiation protection (RP) and to develop a coordinated European approach to RP training needs based on stakeholder consensus and existing activities in the field. Fourteen team members represented six European professional societies, one European voluntary organisation, two international healthcare organisations and five professions, namely: Medical Physicists; Nuclear Medicine Physicians; Radiologists; Radiation Oncologists and Radiographers. Four subgroups analysed the “Strengths”, “Weaknesses”, “Opportunities” and “Threats” related to E&T in RP developed under previous European Union (EU) programmes and on the Guidelines on Radiation Protection Education and Training of Medical Professionals in the EU. Results: Consensus agreement identified four themes for strengths and opportunities, namely: (1) existing structures and training recommendations; (2) RP training needs assessment and education & training (E&T) model(s) development; (3) E&T dissemination, harmonisation, and accreditation; (4) financial supports. Weaknesses and Threats analysis identified two themes: (1) awareness and prioritisation at a national/global level and (2) awareness and prioritisation by healthcare professional groups and researchers. Conclusions: A lack of effective implementation of RP principles in daily practice was identified. EuRnR strategic planning needs to consider processes at European, national and local levels. Success is dependent upon efficient governance structures and expert leadership. Financial support is required to allow the stakeholder professional agencies to have sufficient resources to achieve a pan European radiation protection training network which is sustainable and accredited across multiple national domains.
      17Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Current Practice in the Referral of Individuals with Suspected Dementia for Neuroimaging by General Practitioners in Ireland and Wales
    Objectives: While early diagnosis of dementia is important, the question arises whether general practitioners (GPs) should engage in direct referrals. The current study investigated current referral practices for neuroimaging in dementia, access to imaging modalities and investigated related GP training in Ireland and North Wales. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to GPs in the programme regions which included approximately two thirds of all GPs in the Republic of Ireland and all general practitioners in North Wales. A total of 2,093 questionnaires were issued. Results: 48.6% of Irish respondents and 24.3%of Welsh respondents directly referred patients with suspected dementia for neuroimaging. Irish GPs reported greater direct access to neuroimaging than their Welsh counterparts. A very small percentage of Irish and Welsh GPs (4.7% and 10% respectively) had received training in neuroimaging and the majority who referred patients for neuroimaging were not aware of any dementia-specific protocols for referrals (93.1% and 95% respectively). Conclusions: The benefits of direct GP access to neuroimaging investigations for dementia have yet to be established. Our findings suggest that current GP speciality training in Ireland and Wales is deficient in dementia-specific and neuroimaging training with the concern being that inadequate training will lead to inadequate referrals. Further training would complement guidelines and provide a greater understanding of the role and appropriateness of neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis of dementia.
  • Publication
    Research ethics systems, processes, and awareness across Europe: Radiography research ethics standards for Europe (RRESFE)
    Introduction: The Radiography Research Ethics Standards for Europe (RRESFE) project aims to provide a cross-sectional snapshot of current research ethics systems, processes, and awareness of such, across Europe together with identifying the associated challenges, education, and training needs. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey targeting radiography researchers in Europe was conducted. Data collection took place between April 26 and July 12, 2021, using a snowball sampling approach. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify trends in research ethics frameworks across Europe. Results: 285 responses were received across 33 European and 23 non-European countries. Most (n = 221; 95%) European respondents stated ethics approval is required before commencing research in their country. Requirements around research ethics approval and awareness of such requirements varied by European region (X2 (2, n = 129) = 7.234, p = 0.013) and were found to differ depending on the type of research participant and study design. Additionally, European respondents reported ethics approval is a national requirement more often than their non-European counterparts (X2 (1, n = 282) = 4.316, p = 0.049). Requirements for ethics approval were also associated with the undergraduate programme duration (2-year vs. 3-year vs. 3.5 year vs. 4-year vs. multiple programme durations; X2 (4, n = 231) = 10.075, p = 0.016) and availability of postgraduate training (postgraduate training available vs. postgraduate training not available; X2 (1, n = 231) = 15.448, p = <0.001) within respondents’ country. Conclusion: Respondents from countries with longer programme durations/availability of multiple programme lengths, availability of postgraduate training, and establishment of European Qualifications Framework Level 6 were generally associated with less uncertainty and more comprehensive research ethics requirements. Implications for practice: Results are informative of the current status of research ethics within evidence-based radiography.
      18Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Continuous flow synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of NHC* silver carboxylate derivatives of SBC3 in vitro and in vivo
    N-heterocyclic silver carbene compounds have been extensively studied and shown to be active agents against a host of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. By incorporating hypothesized virulence targeting substituents into NHC–silver systems via salt metathesis, an atom-efficient complexation process can be used to develop new complexes to target the passive and active systems of a microbial cell. The incorporation of fatty acids and an FtsZ inhibitor have been achieved, and creation of both the intermediate salt and subsequent silver complex has been streamlined into a continuous flow process. Biological evaluation was conducted with in vitro toxicology assays showing these novel complexes had excellent inhibition against Gram-negative strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae; further studies also confirmed the ability to inhibit biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and C. Parapsilosis. In vivo testing using a murine thigh infection model showed promising inhibition of MRSA for the lead compound SBC3, which is derived from 1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-diphenylimidazol-2-ylidene (NHC*).
      9Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Research ethics training, challenges, and suggested improvements across Europe: Radiography research ethics standards for Europe (RRESFE)
    Introduction: The Radiography Research Ethics Standards for Europe (RRESFE) project aimed to provide a cross-sectional view of the current state of radiography research ethics across Europe. This included investigating education and training in research ethics, and identifying the key challenges and potential improvements associated with using existing research ethics frameworks. Methods: This cross-sectional online survey targeting radiography researchers in Europe was conducted between April 26 and July 12, 2021. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify research ethics education and training trends. Content analysis of qualitative responses was employed to identify significant challenges and proposed improvements in research ethics frameworks of practice. Results: There were 232 responses received across 33 European countries. Most (n = 132; 57%) respondents had received some research ethics training; however, fewer participants had received training on safeguarding vulnerable patients (n = 72; 38%), diversity and inclusivity (n = 62; 33%), or research with healthy volunteers (n = 60; 32%). Training was associated with a greater perceived importance of the need for research ethics review (p = 0.031) and with the establishment of EQF Level 6 training (p = 0.038). The proportion of formally trained researchers also varied by region (p = <0.001). Time-to-ethics-approval was noted as the biggest challenge for professionals making research ethics applications. Conclusion: Early and universal integration of research-oriented teaching within the radiography education framework which emphasises research ethics is recommended. Additionally, study findings suggest research ethics committee application and approval processes could be further simplified and streamlined. Implications for practice: The survey contributes to a growing body of knowledge surrounding the importance of education and training in research ethics for assuring a high standard of research outputs in Radiography and has identified hurdles to obtaining research ethics approval for further investigation and address.
      14Scopus© Citations 1