Now showing 1 - 10 of 53
  • Publication
    Challenges in On-Chip Antenna Design and Integration with RF Receiver Front-End Circuitry in Nanoscale CMOS for 5G Communication Systems
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-03-18) ; ; ; ; ;
    This paper investigates design considerations and challenges of integrating on-chip antennas in nanoscale CMOS technology at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) to achieve a compact front-end receiver for 5G communication systems. Solutions to overcome these challenges are offered and realized in digital 28-nm CMOS. A monolithic on-chip antenna is designed and optimized in the presence of rigorous metal density rules and other back-end-of-the-line (BEoL) challenges of the nanoscale technology. The proposed antenna structure further exploits ground metallization on a PCB board acting as a reflector to increase its radiation efficiency and power gain by 37.3% and 9.8 dB, respectively, while decreasing the silicon area up to 30% compared to the previous works. The antenna is directly matched to a two-stage low noise amplifier (LNA) in a synergetic way as to give rise to an active integrated antenna (AIA) in order to avoid additional matching or interconnect losses. The LNA is followed by a double-balanced folded Gilbert cell mixer, which produces a lower intermediate frequency (IF) such that no probing is required for measurements. The measured total gain of the AIA is 14 dBi. Its total core area is 0.83 mm2 while the total chip area, including the pad frame, is 1.55 \times 0.85 mm2.
      1271Scopus© Citations 41
  • Publication
    A 0.5ps 1.4mW 50MS/s Nyquist bandwidth time amplifier based two-step flash-ΔΣ time-to-digital converter
    We propose a 50-MS/s two-step flash-ΔΣ time-todigital converter (TDC) using stable time amplifiers (TAs).The TDC demonstrates low-levels of shaped quantization noise. The system is simulated in 40-nm CMOS and consumes 1.3 mA from a 1.1 V supply. The bandwidth is broadened to Nyquist rate. At frequencies below 25 MHz, the integrated TDC error is as low as 143 fsrms, which is equal to an equivalent TDC resolution of 0.5 ps.
      453Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    An Ultra-Low Phase Noise Class-F 2 CMOS Oscillator With 191 dBc/Hz FoM and Long-Term Reliability
    In this paper, we propose a new class of operation of an RF oscillator that minimizes its phase noise. The main idea is to enforce a clipped voltage waveform around the LC tank by increasing the second-harmonic of fundamental oscillation voltage through an additional impedance peak, thus giving rise to a class-F 2 operation. As a result, the noise contribution of the tail current transistor on the total phase noise can be significantly decreased without sacrificing the oscillator's voltage and current efficiencies. Furthermore, its special impulse sensitivity function (ISF) reduces the phase sensitivity to thermal circuit noise. The prototype of the class-F 2 oscillator is implemented in standard TSMC 65 nm CMOS occupying 0.2 mm 2 . It draws 32-38 mA from 1.3 V supply. Its tuning range is 19% covering 7.2-8.8 GHz. It exhibits phase noise of -139 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset from 8.7 GHz carrier, translated to an average figure-of-merit of 191 dBc/Hz with less than 2 dB variation across the tuning range. The long term reliability is also investigated with estimated >10 year lifetime.
      553Scopus© Citations 79
  • Publication
    Analysis and Design of a High-Order Discrete-Time Passive IIR Low-Pass Filter
    In this paper, we propose a discrete-time IIR low-pass filter that achieves a high-order of filtering through a charge-sharing rotation. Its sampling rate is then multiplied through pipelining. The first stage of the filter can operate in either a voltage-sampling or charge-sampling mode. It uses switches, capacitors and a simple gm-cell, rather than opamps, thus being compatible with digital nanoscale technology. In the voltage-sampling mode, the gm-cell is bypassed so the filter is fully passive. A 7th-order filter prototype operating at 800 MS/s sampling rate is implemented in TSMC 65 nm CMOS. Bandwidth of this filter is programmable between 400 kHz to 30 MHz with 100 dB maximum stop-band rejection. Its IIP3 is +21 dBm and the averaged spot noise is 4.57 nV/\surd Hz. It consumes 2 mW at 1.2 V and occupies 0.42 mm2.
      606Scopus© Citations 68
  • Publication
    Charge-Domain Signal Processing of Direct RF Sampling Mixer with Discrete-Time Filters in Bluetooth and GSM Receivers
    RF circuits for multi-GHz frequencies have recently migrated to low-cost digital deep-submicron CMOS processes. Unfortunately, this process environment, which is optimized only for digital logic and SRAM memory, is extremely unfriendly for conventional analog and RF designs. We present fundamental techniques recently developed that transform the RF and analog circuit design complexity to digitally intensive domain for a wireless RF transceiver, so that it enjoys benefits of digital and switched-capacitor approaches. Direct RF sampling techniques allow great flexibility in reconfigurable radio design. Digital signal processing concepts are used to help relieve analog design complexity, allowing one to reduce cost and power consumption in a reconfigurable design environment. The ideas presented have been used in Texas Instruments to develop two generations of commercial digital RF processors: a single-chip Bluetooth radio and a single-chip GSM radio. We further present details of the RF receiver front end for a GSM radio realized in a 90-nm digital CMOS technology. The circuit consisting of low-noise amplifier, transconductance amplifier, and switching mixer offers dB dynamic range with digitally configurable voltage gain of 40 dB down to dB. A series of decimation and discrete-time filtering follows the mixer and performs a highly linear second-order lowpass filtering to reject close-in interferers. The front-end gains can be configured with an automatic gain control to select an optimal setting to form a trade-off between noise figure and linearity and to compensate the process and temperature variations. Even under the digital switching activity, noise figure at the 40 dB maximum gain is 1.8 dB and dBm IIP2 at the 34 dB gain. The variation of the input matching versus multiple gains is less than 1 dB. The circuit in total occupies 3.1 . The LNA, TA, and mixer consume less than mA at a supply voltage of 1.4 V.
      691Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Analysis and Design of a Multi-Core Oscillator for Ultra-Low Phase Noise
    In this paper, we exploit an idea of coupling multiple oscillators to reduce phase noise (PN) to beyond the limit of what has been practically achievable so far in a bulk CMOS technology. We then apply it to demonstrate for the first time an RF oscillator that meets the most stringent PN requirements of cellular basestation receivers while abiding by the process technology reliability rules. The oscillator is realized in digital 65-nm CMOS as a dualcore LC-tank oscillator based on a high-swing class-C topology. It is tunable within 4.07-4.91 GHz, while drawing 39-59 mA from a 2.15 V power supply. The measured PN is -146.7 dBc/Hz and -163.1 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz and 20 MHz offset, respectively, from a 4.07 GHz carrier, which makes it the lowest reported normalized PN of an integrated CMOS oscillator. Straightforward expressions for PN and interconnect resistance between the cores are derived and verified against circuit simulations and measurements. Analysis and simulations show that the interconnect resistance is not critical even with a 1% mismatch between the cores. This approach can be extended to a higher number of cores and achieve an arbitrary reduction in PN at the cost of the power and area.
      808Scopus© Citations 83
  • Publication
    Exponential extended flash time-to-digital converter
    The digital-to-time converter (DTC)-based all- digital phase locked loop (ADPLL) attracts more and more attention due to its ultra-lower power consumption characteristic [1]. With DTC, the time-to-digital converter's (TDC) requirements are relaxed, not only for its range but also for its nonlinearity. However, the shortened TDC range, which is less than one digital controlled oscillator (DCO) output period in the new architecture makes the settling time longer and the TDC gain calibration difficult. This work introduces a technique to extend the TDC range by 16 times to accelerate the settling process, while the extended part can be disabled when ADPLL is in lock. Furthermore, the TDC gain calibration is easier.
  • Publication
    Frequency-domain adaptive-resolution level-crossing-sampling ADC
    In the framework of the large-scale wireless sensor networks involved in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) must target ever increasing levels of power efficiency and amenability to ultra-scaled CMOS technologies. Digitally intensive architectures and smart conversion algorithms are therefore the fuel of future ultra-low power (ULP) designs. The minimization of the output average bitrate is an effective way to maximize the system energy efficiency. Level-crossing-sampling (LC) ADCs are a class of converters that addresses such problem. In their conventional implementation, however, they are mainly impaired by analog blocks (i.e. the high-performance comparators), difficult to be designed in deep nanoscale CMOS. This paper describes a highly-digital frequency-domain implementation of a LC ADC, which replaces the analog comparators with an oscillator-based quantizer and simple digital logic. LC is performed in the digital frequency-domain, where the application of adaptive-resolution algorithms to further enhance power efficiency becomes straightforward. Behavioral modeling simulations demonstrate the appropriateness of the proposed topology by comparing it with the conventional designs and by evaluating the impact of the oscillator-based-quantizer nonidealities on the ADC performance.
      457Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    A wideband 2x 13-bit all-digital I/Q RF-DAC
    This paper presents a wideband 2 ×13-bit in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) RF digital-to-analog converter-based all-digital modulator realized in 65-nm CMOS. The isolation between I and Q paths is guaranteed employing 25% duty-cycle differential quadrature clocks. With a 1.3-V supply and an on-chip power combiner, the digital I/Q transmitter provides more than 21-dBm RF output power within a frequency range of 1.36-2.51 GHz. The peak RF output power, overall system, and drain efficiencies of the modulator are 22.8 dBm, 34%, and 42%, respectively. The measured static noise floor is below -160 dBc/Hz. The digital I/Q RF modulator demonstrates an IQ image rejection and local oscillator leakage of -65 and -68 dBc, respectively. It could be linearized using either of the two digital predistortion (DPD) approaches: a memoryless polynomial or a lookup table. Its linearity is examined using single-carrier 4/16/64/256/1024 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), as well as multi-carrier 256-QAM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing baseband signals while their related modulation bandwidth can be as high as 154 MHz. Employing DPD improves the third-order intermodulation product (IM3) by more than 25 dB, while the measured error vector magnitude for a “single-carrier 22-MHz 64-QAM” signal is better than -28 dB.
      564Scopus© Citations 108
  • Publication
    A 60 GHz Frequency Generator Based on a 20 GHz Oscillator and an Implicit Multiplier
    This paper proposes a mm-wave frequency generation technique that improves its phase noise (PN) performance and power efficiency. The main idea is that a fundamental 20 GHz signal and its sufficiently strong third harmonic at 60 GHz are generated simultaneously in a single oscillator. The desired 60 GHz local oscillator (LO) signal is delivered to the output, whereas the 20 GHz signal can be fed back for phase detection in a phase-locked loop. Third-harmonic boosting and extraction techniques are proposed and applied to the frequency generator. A prototype of the proposed frequency generator is implemented in digital 40 nm CMOS. It exhibits a PN of -100 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from 57.8 GHz and provides 25% frequency tuning range (TR). The achieved figure-of-merit (FoM) is between 179 and 182 dBc/Hz.
      690Scopus© Citations 112