Now showing 1 - 10 of 23
  • Publication
    The use of synthetic and natural vitamin D sources in pig diets to improve meat quality and vitamin D content
    This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 μg vitamin D₃/kg of feed; (2)50 μg of 25-hydroxvitamin D₃/kg of feed (25-OH-D₃); (3)50 μg vitamin D₂/kg of feed; (4)50 μg vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D₂). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D₃ diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight and LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D₃ is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.
    Scopus© Citations 47  405
  • Publication
    Effect of β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplemented barley diets on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and expression of intestinal nutrient transporter genes in finisher pigs
    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of an enzyme mix (β-glucanase and β-xylanase) to barley based diets that had different chemical compositions achieved through different agronomical conditions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal nutrient transporters. Ninety-six pigs (44.7 kg (SD 4.88)) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments. The treatments were as follows: (T1) low quality barley diet, (T2) low quality barley diet supplemented with β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplement, (T3) high quality barley diet and (T4) high quality barley diet supplemented with β-glucanase and β-xylanase enzyme supplement. The inclusion of barley was 500 g/kg. There was an interaction between barley type and enzyme supplementation on average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0.05). Pigs offered the low quality barley diet supplemented with enzymes had an increase in both ADG and ADFI compared to the low quality barley diet only. However, there was no response to enzyme inclusion in the high quality barley diet. Pigs offered the low quality barley diet with enzymes had a higher coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) compared to the low quality barley diet only (P < 0.05). However, the increase in the high quality barley diet with enzyme supplementation was not as great as with the low quality barley diet. Pigs offered the low quality barley had an upregulation in the expression of the ghrelin gene (GHRL) in the jejunum compared to pigs offered the high quality barley diet (P < 0.05). There was a barley × enzyme interaction observed for the expression of the cluster of differentiation gene (CD36) in the duodenum and the peptide transporter 1 gene (PEPT1/SLC15A1) and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 gene (SGLT1/SLC5A1) in the ileum (P < 0.01). Pigs offered the high quality barley diet with enzymes had increased expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1 compared to the high quality barley diet alone. However the low quality barley diet with enzymes down regulated the expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1 compared to the low quality barley diet alone. In conclusion, offering a low quality barley diet supplemented with an enzyme mix improved ADG, ADFI and nutrient digestibility as well as modifying the expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1. The inclusion of an enzyme mix to the high quality barley diet improved nutrient digestibility and caused an upregulation in the expression of CD36, PEPT1/SLC15A1 and SGLT1/SLC5A1 but it did not improve animal performance.
    Scopus© Citations 20  488
  • Publication
    The influence of diet crude protein level on odour and ammonia emissions from finishing pig houses
    Feed trials were carried out to assess the influence of crude protein content in finishing pig diets on odour and ammonia emissions. Eight pigs (4 boars and 4 gilts), average initial weight 70.8 kg (s.e. 3.167) were housed in two pens that were isolated from the rest of a pig house at University College Dublin Research Farm, Newcastle, Dublin, Ireland. Four diets containing 130, 160, 190 and 220 g kg−1 crude protein were fed during six four-week feeding periods (one treatment per room). The first week of the feeding periods served to allow odour build up in the pens and as a dietary adjustment period. The pens had partially slatted floors that were cleaned and had all the manure removed after each four-week period. Odour and ammonia concentrations were measured on days 9, 14, 16, 21 and 23 of each trial period. Odour samples were collected in Nalophan bags and analysed for odour concentration using an ECOMA Yes/No olfactometer. The odour threshold concentration was calculated according to the response of the olfactometry panel members and was displayed in OuE m−3, which referred to the physiological response from the panel equivalent to that elicited by 40 ppb v−1n-butanol evaporated in 1 m3 of neutral gas. Ammonia concentrations in the ventilation air were measured using Dräger tubes. The odour emission rates per animal for the 130, 160, 190 and 220 g kg−1 crude protein diets were 12.1, 13.2, 19.6 and 17.6 OuE s−1 animal−1, respectively (P<0.01). The odour emission rate per livestock unit (500 kg) for the 130, 160, 190 and 220 g kg−1 crude protein diets were 77.6, 80.0, 115.8 and 102.9 OuE s−1 LU−1, respectively (P<0.01). The ammonia emission rates per animal for the 130, 160, 190 and 220 g kg−1 crude protein diets were 3.11, 3.89, 5.89 and 8.27 g d−1 animal−1, respectively (P⩽0.001). There was no significant difference in the average daily intake and the average daily gain for the four diets (P>0.05). Manipulation of dietary crude protein levels would appear to offer a low cost alternative, in relation to end-of-pipe treatments, for the abatement of odour and ammonia emissions from finishing pig houses
      1164Scopus© Citations 114
  • Publication
    Enhancing the extraction of polysaccharides and antioxidants from macroalgae using sequential hydrothermal-assisted extraction followed by ultrasound and thermal technologies
    Fucose sulphated polysaccharides (FSPs) and glucans have recently attracted the attention of the scientific community due to their wide range of biological activities. Both polysaccharides should ideally be selectively extracted using innovative technologies with high extraction efficiency. This study aims to: (1) Optimise the extraction variables used in hydrothermal-assisted extraction (HAE) to obtain high yields of FSPs, total glucans, and antioxidants from Laminaria hyperborea; (2) to apply these optimised protocols to other brown macroalgae; and (3) to explore the application of ultrasound and thermal technologies to increase the recovery of polysaccharides from the residual biomass. Box-Behnken design (three-factor, four-levels) was employed to optimise the HAE variables, and principal component analysis was used to evaluate the recovery of polysaccharides from the residual biomass. The optimal HAE conditions were 120 ◦C, 80.9 min, and 12.02 mL/g macroalgae from L. hyperborea. The best sequential application of ultrasound and thermal treatment achieved an additional 2971.7 ± 61.9 mg fucose/100 g dried macroalgal residue (dmr) from Ascophyllum nodosum and 908.0 ± 51.4 mg total glucans/100 g dmr from L. hyperborea macroalgal residues.
      252Scopus© Citations 60
  • Publication
    The potential of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 enriched diets in laying hens, to improve egg vitamin D content and antioxidant availability
    Sixty Hy-line brown hens were randomly assigned to four barns (n = 4) to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) versus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) enriched diets on egg vitamin D concentration, antioxidant activity and egg quality parameters. Experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square consisting of 4 experimental treatments and 4 experimental periods. The treatments were (1) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ (2) 3000 IU of vitamin D₃ (3) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ and 37.5 μg of 25-OH-D₃ (4) 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ per kg of feed. Hens offered 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ had a higher (P < 0.05) total vitamin D egg yolk content (5.06 μg/egg), and antioxidant activity compared to other dietary treatments. The results demonstrates that the enrichment of hen diets with 25-OH-D₃ may be a useful approach and may contribute between 25 and 33% towards total vitamin D daily requirements while also improving antioxidant status of eggs. Industrial relevance: Vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a major issue in northern Europe and has been described as a pandemic. A growing interest in vitamin D food fortification in northern Europe to satisfy the current dietary intake recommendations has been observed. The use of a bio-addition approach for increasing vitamin D intake through biofortification of livestock feeds attracts attention. Enrichment of the hen's diet with vitamin D may also supply additional benefits of increasing antioxidant activity. This increase in antioxidant activity may have the ability to increase food quality and extend the shelf life. This study explores the effect of vitamin D enriched diets fed to laying hens on vitamin D egg yolk content and antioxidant activity in the egg. These enriched diets could demonstrate that enrichment of hen diets with 25-hyroxvitamin D₃ may be a useful approach for tackling low vitamin D intakes and improving antioxidant capacity of eggs.
    Scopus© Citations 16  345
  • Publication
    Potential of a fucoidan-rich Ascophyllum nodosum extract to reduce Salmonella shedding and improve gastrointestinal health in weaned pigs naturally infected with Salmonella
    Background. Dietary supplementation with a fucoidan-rich Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE), possessing an in vitro anti-Salmonella Typhimurium activity could be a promising on-farm strategy to control Salmonella infection in pigs. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the anti-S. Typhimurium activity of ANE (containing 46.6% fucoidan, 18.6% laminarin, 10.7% mannitol, 4.6% alginate) in vitro, and; 2) compare the effects of dietary supplementation with ANE and Zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, Salmonella shedding and selected gut parameters in naturally infected pigs. This was established post-weaning (newly weaned pig experiment) and following regrouping of post-weaned pigs and experimental re-infection with S. Typhimurium (challenge experiment). Results. In the in vitro assay, increasing ANE concentrations led to a linear reduction in S. Typhimurium counts (P <  0.05). In the newly weaned pig experiment (12 replicates/treatment), high ANE supplementation increased gain to feed ratio, similar to ZnO supplementation, and reduced faecal Salmonella counts on d 21 compared to the low ANE and control groups (P <  0.05). The challenge experiment included thirty-six pigs from the previous experiment that remained on their original dietary treatments (control and high ANE groups with the latter being renamed to ANE group) apart from the ZnO group which transitioned onto a control diet on d 21 (ZnO-residual group). These dietary treatments had no effect on performance, faecal scores, Salmonella shedding or colonic and caecal Salmonella counts (P > 0.05). ANE supplementation decreased the Enterobacteriaceae counts compared to the control. Enterobacteriaceae counts were also reduced in the ZnO-residual group compared to the control (P <  0.05). ANE supplementation decreased the expression of interleukin 22 and transforming growth factor beta 1 in the ileum compared to the control (P <  0.05).
      257Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Effect of dietary seaweed extracts, galactooligosaccharide and vitamin E supplementation on meat quality parameters in finisher pigs
    Fifty six pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 diets (n = 14) for 35 days pre-slaughter, to assess the effects on bacterial count, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh meat. The treatments were (T1) basal diet (BD), (T2) BD plus seaweed extract (SWE), (T3) BD plus vitamin E (Vit E) and (T4) BD plus galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). At slaughter longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks were excised and stored in modified atmosphere packs for a 14 day period. The supplemented diets improved the TAC of LD steaks until day 11 of storage while SWE samples exhibited the highest TAC throughout. A reduction (P < 0.05) in the level of LPO was observed in LD steaks from SWE and Vit E supplementation. Compared to basal diet, SWE and GOS exhibited lower bacterial count throughout storage. These results demonstrate the potential for the incorporation of SWE into muscle foods via the diet.
    Scopus© Citations 36  448
  • Publication
    Exploring ultrasound-assisted extraction to recover high valuable polysaccharides from brown macroalgae and its related antioxidant activities
    This study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters of temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of fucose and glucans and their antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) of extracts from Laminaria digitata and to evaluate the application of these optimum UAE parameters in other brown macroalgae (L. hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum).
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  • Publication
    Polysaccharides from macroalgae: Recent advances, innovative technologies and challenges in extraction and purification
    Polysaccharides obtained from macroalgae have promising prospects and could contribute greatly to the future of a marine based bio-economy. Specifically, laminarin and fucoidan from brown macroalgae have a wide variety of potential industrial applications including functional foods and nutraceuticals, due to their broad range of biological activities. These beneficial biological activities are related to the chemical composition and structure of the macroalgal polysaccharides. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulphate content of these polysaccharides could be influenced by both macroalgal biology (i.e. variations in polysaccharide composition due to macroalgae species and their biological cycle) and different extraction/purification techniques employed to obtain polysaccharide enriched products (i.e. de-sulphation or fragmentation of sulphated polysaccharides). This review focuses on the extraction and purification methods for the macroalgal polysaccharides laminarin and fucoidan used in the recent literature. The application of innovative extraction technologies (such as ultrasound, microwave and enzyme-assisted extractions), as well as new purification techniques (i.e. membrane separation), are also discussed together with the challenges concerning molecule structure-function relationship and macroalgal variability.
      3470Scopus© Citations 249
  • Publication
    Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds
    This study investigates ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process parameters (time, frequency and solvent) to obtain high yields of phlorotannins, flavonoids, total phenolics and associated antioxidant activities from 11 brown seaweed species. Optimised UAE conditions (35 kHz, 30 min and 50% ethanol) significantly improved the extraction yield from 1.5-fold to 2.2-fold in all seaweeds investigated compared to solvent extraction. Using ultrasound, the highest recovery of total phenolics (TPC: 572.3 ± 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total phlorotannins (TPhC: 476.3 ± 2.2 mg phloroglucinol equivalent/g) and total flavonoids (TFC: 281.0 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g) was obtained from Fucus vesiculosus seaweed. While the lowest recovery of TPC (72.6 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g), TPhC (50.3 ± 2.0 mg PGE/g) and TFC (15.2 ± 3.3 mg QE/g) was obtained from Laminaria digitata seaweed. However, extracts from Fucus serratus obtained by UAE exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (29.1 ± 0.25 mg trolox equivalent/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (63.9 ± 0.74 mg trolox equivalent/g). UAE under optimised conditions was an effective, low-cost and eco-friendly technique to recover biologically active polyphenols from 11 brown seaweed species.
      283Scopus© Citations 98