Now showing 1 - 10 of 23
  • Publication
    Effect of seasons on the proximate composition of Laminaria hyperborea from Irish Atlantic coast
    This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in the proximate composition of Laminaria hyperborea collected in 2016 and 2017, off the west coast of Ireland.
  • Publication
    Effect of dietary seaweed extracts, galactooligosaccharide and vitamin E supplementation on meat quality parameters in finisher pigs
    Fifty six pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 diets (n = 14) for 35 days pre-slaughter, to assess the effects on bacterial count, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh meat. The treatments were (T1) basal diet (BD), (T2) BD plus seaweed extract (SWE), (T3) BD plus vitamin E (Vit E) and (T4) BD plus galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). At slaughter longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks were excised and stored in modified atmosphere packs for a 14 day period. The supplemented diets improved the TAC of LD steaks until day 11 of storage while SWE samples exhibited the highest TAC throughout. A reduction (P < 0.05) in the level of LPO was observed in LD steaks from SWE and Vit E supplementation. Compared to basal diet, SWE and GOS exhibited lower bacterial count throughout storage. These results demonstrate the potential for the incorporation of SWE into muscle foods via the diet.
      354Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    In vitro effects of seaweed extracts on intestinal commensals and pathogens of weaned piglets
    While the inclusion of certain seaweed extracts in weaner piglet diets leads to a beneficial gut microbial profile, the mode of action is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prebiotic and antimicrobial potential of Laminaria digitata and Ascophylum nodosum extracts in vitro. Both extracts were two-fold diluted from 2 mg/ml to 0.25 mg/ml. The following strains were used at 106 -107 colonyforming unit(CFU)/ml concentrations: Lactobacillus plantarum, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium thermophilum, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O149 and Salmonella enterica ser Typhimurium PT12. Each concentration of each extract and controls (0 mg/ml) were incubated for 18 h at 37 °C aerobically or anaerobically (B. thermophilum). Final bacterial concentrations were determined by spread plating. All experiments were carried out with technical replicates on three independent occasions. All data were logarithmically transformed and analysed using the PROC GLM (SAS 9.4). The L. digitata extract increased B. thermophilum 0.7 LogCFU/ml at 0.25 mg/ml (P<0.05) and ≥1 LogCFU/ml from 0.5-2 mg/ml (P<0.05), with no effect on lactobacilli. The A. nodosum extract increased B. thermophilum up to 0.9 LogCFU/ml at all concentrations tested (P<0.05). Additionally, a 0.2 LogCFU/ml increase of L. reuteri and L. plantarum was observed at 2 mg/ml (P<0.05) and 1mg/ml (P<0.05), respectively. Both extracts displayed no antimicrobial activity against ETEC or S. Typhimurium. In conclusion, both extracts exhibited bifidogenic activity in vitro, with an additional slight increase of Lactobacillus spp. for A. nodosum, indicating a prebiotic potential.
  • Publication
    The effect of 25‐hydroxyvitamin D3 and phytase inclusion on pig performance, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing both phytase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) on pig performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial comprising of four dietary treatments. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were blocked according to live weight and sex and allocated to the following dietary treatments: low P (4.81 g/kg) diet (basal) (T1); low P diet + phytase (T2); low P diet + 25-OH-D₃ (T3) and low P diet + phytase + 25-OH-D₃ (T4). Pigs supplemented with phytase had a lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.45 kg vs. 2.59 kg; p < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.74 kg/kg vs. 2.85 kg/kg; p < 0.05) compared to pigs offered the nonphytase diets. Pigs offered phytase diets had a higher (p < 0.05) coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of ash, phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca) compared with pigs offered the nonphytase supplemented diets. Pigs offered the 25-OH-D3 diets had a higher CATTD of N and ash. Pigs offered the phytase diets had increased (p < 0.05) bone DM, ash, Ca, P and density compared to the nonphytase diets. There was a significant interaction (p < 0.05) between phytase and 25-OH-D3 on cook loss. Pigs offered 25-OH-D3 had increased cook loss over the basal diet; however, there was no effect on cook loss when phytase and 25-OH-D3 were offered in combination compared to the phytase only diet. Pigs offered 25-OH-D3 exhibited higher (p < 0.05) Warner Bratzler shear force values and lower (p < 0.05) pork lightness (L*) surface colorimeter values. In conclusion, there was no benefit to offering a combination of phytase and 25-OH-D3 on pig performance, bone parameters or pork quality.
      384Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    The potential of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 enriched diets in laying hens, to improve egg vitamin D content and antioxidant availability
    Sixty Hy-line brown hens were randomly assigned to four barns (n = 4) to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) versus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) enriched diets on egg vitamin D concentration, antioxidant activity and egg quality parameters. Experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square consisting of 4 experimental treatments and 4 experimental periods. The treatments were (1) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ (2) 3000 IU of vitamin D₃ (3) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ and 37.5 μg of 25-OH-D₃ (4) 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ per kg of feed. Hens offered 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ had a higher (P < 0.05) total vitamin D egg yolk content (5.06 μg/egg), and antioxidant activity compared to other dietary treatments. The results demonstrates that the enrichment of hen diets with 25-OH-D₃ may be a useful approach and may contribute between 25 and 33% towards total vitamin D daily requirements while also improving antioxidant status of eggs. Industrial relevance: Vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a major issue in northern Europe and has been described as a pandemic. A growing interest in vitamin D food fortification in northern Europe to satisfy the current dietary intake recommendations has been observed. The use of a bio-addition approach for increasing vitamin D intake through biofortification of livestock feeds attracts attention. Enrichment of the hen's diet with vitamin D may also supply additional benefits of increasing antioxidant activity. This increase in antioxidant activity may have the ability to increase food quality and extend the shelf life. This study explores the effect of vitamin D enriched diets fed to laying hens on vitamin D egg yolk content and antioxidant activity in the egg. These enriched diets could demonstrate that enrichment of hen diets with 25-hyroxvitamin D₃ may be a useful approach for tackling low vitamin D intakes and improving antioxidant capacity of eggs.
      294Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds
    This study investigates ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process parameters (time, frequency and solvent) to obtain high yields of phlorotannins, flavonoids, total phenolics and associated antioxidant activities from 11 brown seaweed species. Optimised UAE conditions (35 kHz, 30 min and 50% ethanol) significantly improved the extraction yield from 1.5-fold to 2.2-fold in all seaweeds investigated compared to solvent extraction. Using ultrasound, the highest recovery of total phenolics (TPC: 572.3 ± 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total phlorotannins (TPhC: 476.3 ± 2.2 mg phloroglucinol equivalent/g) and total flavonoids (TFC: 281.0 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g) was obtained from Fucus vesiculosus seaweed. While the lowest recovery of TPC (72.6 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g), TPhC (50.3 ± 2.0 mg PGE/g) and TFC (15.2 ± 3.3 mg QE/g) was obtained from Laminaria digitata seaweed. However, extracts from Fucus serratus obtained by UAE exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (29.1 ± 0.25 mg trolox equivalent/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (63.9 ± 0.74 mg trolox equivalent/g). UAE under optimised conditions was an effective, low-cost and eco-friendly technique to recover biologically active polyphenols from 11 brown seaweed species.
      139Scopus© Citations 57
  • Publication
    Chito-Oligosaccharide Inhibits the De-Methylation of a CpG Island within the Leptin (LEP) Promoter during Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells
    (Public Library of Science, 2013-03-27) ; ; ;
    Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) is a natural bioactive compound, which has been shown to suppress lipid metabolic genes and lipid accumulation in differentiating adipocytes. Leptin has been identified as a key regulator of energy homeostasis and is known to be under epigenetic regulation during adipogenesis. Hence, the first objective of this experiment was to compare leptin gene (LEP) expression and leptin secretion during the different stages of adipogenesis and to investigate the effect of COS on these processes. As COS inhibited LEP expression during adipogenesis, the second aim was to investigate the methylation dynamics of a ¿CpG¿ island in the proximal region of the LEP promoter during adipogenesis and to determine the effect of COS on this process. Mouse 3T3-L1 cells were stimulated to differentiate in the absence or presence of COS and the levels of leptin mRNA and protein were evaluated on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 post-induction of differentiation (PID). The extent of de-methylation of six CpG sites was evaluated. LEP mRNA transcript and protein could not be detected on either day 0PID or 2PID. In contrast, both were detected on day 4PID (P<0.05) and 6PID (P<0.001) and both were inhibited by COS (P<0.001). Of the six CpG sites analyzed, CpG_52, CpG_62 and CpG_95 became 11.5, 5.0 and 5.0% de-methylated between day 2PID and 6PID, respectively. COS blocked this de-methylation event at CpG_52 (P<0.001), CpG_62 (P<0.01) and CpG_95 (P<0.01) on day 6PID. These data suggest that COS can have an epigenetic effect on differentiating adipocytes, a novel biological function of COS which has potential applications for the manipulation of leptin gene expression, adipogenesis, and conditions within the metabolic syndrome spectrum.
      335Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Cholecalciferol supplementation in heifer diets increases beef vitamin D concentration and improves beef tenderness
    This study investigated the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) supplementation on beef vitamin D activity, beef tenderness and sensory attributes. Thirty heifers were randomly allocated to one of three finishing dietary treatments [(T1) basal diet + 0 IU vitamin D₃; (T2) basal diet + 2000 IU vitamin D₃; and (T3) basal diet + 4000 IU vitamin D₃] for a 30 day period pre-slaughter. Vitamin D₃ supplementation linearly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25-OH-D3) concentrations (R2 = 0.48), Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (R2 = 0.78) as well as individually vitamin D₃ (R2 = 0.84) and 25-OH-D₃ (R2 = 0.75). The highest vitamin D₃ inclusion diet (T3) had a 42% increase (P < 0.001) in LT vitamin D activity compared to the intermediate diet (T2) and a 145% increase over the lowest level diet (T1). Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased LT shear (P < 0.05) force values after 14 days chilling. Sensory parameters were not affected (P > 0.05). In conclusion, through short-term vitamin D₃ supplementation of cattle diets, beef vitamin D activity can successfully be enhanced
      312Scopus© Citations 18
  • Publication
    Exploring ultrasound-assisted extraction to recover high valuable polysaccharides from brown macroalgae and its related antioxidant activities
    This study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters of temperature, time and amplitude on the yields of fucose and glucans and their antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) of extracts from Laminaria digitata and to evaluate the application of these optimum UAE parameters in other brown macroalgae (L. hyperborea and Ascophyllum nodosum).
  • Publication
    Effects of extraction method on the prebiotic potential of Ascophylum nodosum extracts
    Seaweed-derived bioactive compounds exhibit various beneficial activities in humans and animals. A factor influencing their concentrations, and subsequent bioactivity, is the extraction method. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro prebiotic potential of three differently-extracted Ascophylum nodosum samples. The samples were produced using either solid-liquid extraction with water (AN-W), or ethanol (AN-EtOH) as solvent or high pressure-assisted extraction with water as solvent (AN-HPW). All extracts were two-fold diluted from 2 mg/ml to 0.25 mg/ml. Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), L. reuteri (LR) and Bifidobacterium thermophilum (BT) were used at 106 -107 colony-forming unit(CFU)/ml. Each concentration of each extract and controls (0 mg/ml) were incubated for 18 h at 37 °C aerobically or anaerobically (BT). Final bacterial concentrations were determined by spread plating. All experiments were carried out in triplicate with technical replicates. All data were logarithmically transformed and analysed using PROC GLM (SAS 9.4). AN-HPW increased BT (≤0.9 LogCFU/ml, P<0.05) at all concentrations and LR and LP (0.2 LogCFU/ml, P<0.05) at 2 mg/ml and 1mg/ml, respectively. AN-W increased BT (≤0.6 LogCFU/ml, P<0.05) at 1-2mg/ml, but decreased both lactobacilli; LP ≤0.7 LogCFU/ml and LR ≤5.4 LogCFU/ml at all concentrations (P<0.05). AN-EtOH increased LP (≤0.7 LogCFU/ml, P<0.05), but reduced LR (≤5.7 LogCFU/ml, P<0.05) at all concentrations and BT (≤4 LogCFU/ml, P<0.05) at 1-2 mg/ml. In conclusion, the extraction method influenced the prebiotic potential of the A. nodosum extracts in vitro with AN-HPW being the most promising.