Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Sodium caprate-induced increases in intestinal permeability and epithelial damage are prevented by misoprostol
    Epithelial damage caused by intestinal permeation enhancers is a source of debate over their safety. The medium chain fatty acid, sodium caprate (C10), causes reversible membrane perturbation at high dose levels required for efficacy in vivo, so the aim was to model it in vitro. Exposure of Caco-2 monolayers to 8.5mM C10 for 60min followed by incubation in fresh buffer led to (i) recovery in epithelial permeability (i.e. transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [(14)C]-mannitol), (ii) recovery of cell viability parameters (monolayer morphology, plasma membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular calcium) and (iii) reduction in mRNA expression associated with inflammation (IL-8). Pre-incubation of monolayers with a mucosal prostaglandin cytoprotectant was attempted in order to further decipher the mechanism of C10. Misoprostol (100nM), inhibited C10-induced changes in monolayer parameters, an effect that was partially attenuated by the EP1 receptor antagonist, SC51322. In rat isolated intestinal tissue mucosae and in situ loop instillations, C10-induced respective increases in the [(14)C]-mannitol Papp and the AUC of FITC-dextran 4000 (FD-4) were similarly inhibited by misoprostol, with accompanying morphological damage spared. These data support a temporary membrane perturbation effect of C10, which is linked to its capacity to mainly increase paracellular flux, but which can be prevented by pre-exposure to misoprostol.
      534Scopus© Citations 33
  • Publication
    High content analysis to determine cytotoxicity of the antimicrobial peptide, melittin and selected structural analogs
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring entities with potential as pharmaceutical candidates and/or food additives. They are present in many organisms including bacteria, insects, fish and mammals. While their antimicrobial activity is equipotent with many commercial antibiotics, current limitations are poor pharmacokinetics, stability and potential toxicology issues. Most elicit antimicrobial action via perturbation of bacterial membranes. Consequently, associated cytotoxicity in human cells is reflected by their capacity to lyse erythrocytes. However, more rigorous toxicological assessment of AMPs is required in order to predict potential failure at a later stage of development.Wedescribe a high-content analysis (HCA) screening protocol recently established for determination and prediction of safety in pharmaceutical drug discovery. HCA is a powerful, multi-parameter bioanalytical tool that amalgamates the actions of fluorescence microscopy with automated cell analysis software in order to understand multiple changes in cellular health. We describe the application of HCA in assessing cytotoxicity of the cytolytic-helical peptide, melittin, and selected structural analogs. The data shows that structural modification of melittin reduces its cytotoxic action and that HCA is suitable for rapidly identifying cytotoxicity.
      1454Scopus© Citations 24
  • Publication
    A comparison of three Peyer's patch "M-like" cell culture models: particle uptake, bacterial interaction, and epithelial histology
    Intestinal Peyer's patch (PP) microfold (M) cells transport microbes and particulates across the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) as part of the mucosal immune surveillance system. In vitro human M-like cell co-culture models are used as screens to investigate uptake of antigens-in-nanoparticles, but the models are labour-intensive and there is inter-laboratory variability. We compared the three most established filter-grown Caco-2/Raji B cell co-culture systems. These were Model A (Kerneis et al, 1997), Model B (Gullberg et al., 2000), and Model C (Des Rieux et al. 2007). The criteria used were transepithelial resistance (TEER), the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [(14)C]-mannitol, M cell-like histology, as well as latex particle and Salmonella typhimurium translocation. Each co-culture model displayed substantial increases in particle translocation. Truncated microvilli compared to mono-cultures was their most consistent feature. The inverted model developed by des Rieux et al. (2007) displayed reductions in TEER and an increased (Papp), accompanied by the largest increase in particle translocation compared to the other two models. The normally-oriented model developed by Gullberg et al. (2000) was the only one to consistently display an increased translocation of salmonella typhimurium. By applying a double Matrigel¿¿¿ coating on filters, altering the medium feeding regime for Raji B cells, and restricting the passage number of B cells, improvements to the Gullberg model B were achieved, as reflected by increased particle translocation and improved histology. In conclusion, this is the first time all three designs have been compared in one study and each displays phenotypic features of M-like cells. While Model C was the most robust co-culture, the Model B protocol could be improved by optimizing several variables and is less complicated to establish than the two inverted models..
      253Scopus© Citations 18