Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
  • Publication
    Carbene Iridium Complexes for Efficient Water Oxidation: Scope and Mechanistic Insights
    Iridium complexes of Cp* and mesoionic carbene ligands were synthesized and evaluated as potential water oxidation catalysts using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant. Performance was evaluated by turnover frequency at 50% conversion and by absolute turnover number, and the most promising precatalysts were studied further. Molecular turnover frequencies varied from 190 to 451 per hour with a maximum turnover number of 38 000. While the rate of oxygen evolution depends linearly on iridium concentration, concurrent spectroscopic and manometric observations following stoichiometric oxidant additions suggest oxygen evolution is limited by two sequential first-order reactions. Under the applied conditions, the oxygen evolving species appears to be a well-defined and molecular species based on kinetic analyses, effects of careful ligand design, reproducibility, and the absence of persistent dynamic light scattering signals. Outside of these conditions, the complex mechanism is highly dependent on reaction conditions. While confident characterization of the catalytically active species is difficult, especially under high-turnover conditions, this work strongly suggests the primary active species under these conditions is a molecular species.
      344Scopus© Citations 93
  • Publication
    Bimetallic Iridium-Carbene Complexes with Mesoionic Triazolylidene Ligands for Water Oxidation Catalysis
    Two new diiridium–triazolylidene complexes were prepared as bimetallic analogues of established mononuclear water oxidation catalysts. Both complexes are efficient catalyst precursors in the presence of cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) as sacrificial oxidant. Up to 20000:1 ratios of CAN/complex, the turnover limitation is the availability of CAN and not the catalyst stability. The water oxidation activity of the bimetallic complexes is not better than the monometallic species at 0.6 mm catalyst concentration. Under dilute conditions (0.03 mm), the bimetallic complexes double their activity, whereas the monometallic complexes show an opposite trend and display markedly reduced rates, thereby suggesting a benefit of the close proximity of two metal centers in this low concentration regime. The high dependence of catalyst activity on reaction conditions indicates that caution is required when catalysts are compared by their turnover frequencies only.
      310Scopus© Citations 42
  • Publication
    Carbene transfer from triazolylidene gold complexes as a potent strategy for inducing high catalytic activity
    A series of gold(I) complexes [AuCl(trz)] were synthesized that contain 1,2,3-triazolylidene (trz) ligands with variable wingtip groups. In the presence of AgBF4, these complexes undergo ligand redistribution to yield cationic complexes [Au(trz)2]BF4 in high yields as a result of efficient carbene transfer. Identical reactivity patterns were detected for carbene gold complexes comprised of Arduengo-type IMes ligands (IMes=N,N⠲-dimesityl-imidazol-2-ylidene). Reaction of cationic complexes [Au(trz)2]+ with [AuCl(trz⠲)] afforded the heteroleptic complex [Au(trz)(trz⠲)]+ and [AuCl(trz)] (trz, trz⠲=triazolylidene ligands with different wingtip groups). Carbene transfer occurs spontaneously, yet is markeldy rate-enhanced in the presence of Ag+. The facile carbene transfer was exploited as a catalyst activation process to form active gold species for the aldol condensation of isocyanides and aldehydes to form oxazolines. The catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the presence of Ag+ ions to initiate catalyst activation. High turnovers (105) and turnover frequencies (10 4 h-1) were accomplished. Structural analysis at early stages of the reaction support the critical role of triazolylidene dissociation to activate the precatalyst and dynamic light scattering revealed the presence of nanoparticles (±100 nm diameter) as potential catalytically active species. Furthermore, the triazolylidene scaffold had no impact on the diastereoselectivity of the oxazoline formation, and chiral triazolylidenes did not induce any asymmetry in the product. The facile dissociation of carbenes from [AuCl(carbene)] in the presence of Ag+ ions suggests a less stable Au-Ccarbene interaction than often assumed, with potential implications for gold-catalyzed reactions that employ a silver salt as (putative) halide scavenger.
      389Scopus© Citations 110
  • Publication
    Application of 1,2,3-triazolylidenes as versatile NHC-type ligands: synthesis, properties, and application in catalysis and beyond
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013-02-11) ; ;
    Triazolylidenes have rapidly emerged as a powerful subclass of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for transition metals. They are readily available through regioselective [2 + 3] cycloaddition of alkynes and azides and subsequent metallation according to procedures established for related carbenes. Due to their mesoionic character, triazolylidenes are stronger donors than Arduengo-type imidazol-2-ylidenes. Spurred by these attractive attributes and despite their only recent emergence, triazolylidenes have shown major implications in catalysis. This feature article summarises the synthetic accessibility of triazolylidene metal complexes and their electronic and structural characteristics, and it compiles their applications, in particular, as catalyst precursors for various bond forming and redox reactions, as well as first approaches into photophysical and biochemical domains.
      613Scopus© Citations 322
  • Publication
    Ligand Exchange and Redox Processes in Iridium Triazolylidene Complexes Relevant to Catalytic Water Oxidation
    (American Chemical Society, 2014-11-21) ; ;
    Iridium(III) complexes containing a bidentate spectator ligand have emerged as powerful catalyst precursors for water oxidation. Here we investigate the initial steps of the transformation at the iridium center when using complex [IrCp*(pyr-trz)Cl] 1 (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, pyr-trz = 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene), a potent water oxidation catalyst precursor. Ligand exchange with water is facile and is reversed in the presence of chloride ions, while MeCN substitution is effective only from the corresponding aqua complex. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqua complex was determined, which is in agreement with strong electron donation from the triazolylidene ligand that is comparable to aryl anions. Evaluation of the pH-dependent oxidation process in aqueous media reveals two regimes (pH 4–8.5 and above pH 10.5) where proton-coupled electron transfer processes occur. These investigations will help to further optimize water oxidation catalysts and indicate that MeCN as a cosolvent has adverse effects for initiating water coordination in the oxidation process.
      217Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    Iridium, ruthenium, and palladium complexes containing a mesoionic fused imidazolylidene ligand
    Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine consisting of a pyridine fused to an imidazolium salt at the imidazolium N1–C2 bond and hence protected from forming normal imidazole-2-ylidene complexes undergoes selective activation of the C5–H bond with Ag2O, i.e. at the imidazolium carbon that is proximal to the pyridine nitrogen. While the silver carbene complex is unstable, transmetallation with [IrCp*Cl2]2, [RuCl2(cym)]2, and [PdCl(allyl)]2 afforded stable mesoionic carbene complexes. Two iridium(III) complexes containing one fused carbene ligand and one palladium(II) complex containing two carbene ligands at the metal centre were structurally characterized. The absence of substituents adjacent to the carbene carbon prevents wingtip group activation, and it imparts a reduced stability of the complexes in particular under (mildly) acidic conditions.
      365Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Mesoionic oxides: facile access from triazolium salts or triazolylidene copper precursors and, catalytic relevance
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012-07-04) ; ;
    Reaction of CsOH with triazolium salts affords mesoionic compounds containing an exocyclic oxygen; the same product is obtained by reaction of the corresponding Cu(I) triazolylidenes with CsOH and represents an unusual reactivity pattern of N-heterocyclic carbene precursors that has implications for carbene copper-catalyzed reactions.
      305Scopus© Citations 36
  • Publication
    Iridium Complexes Containing Mesoionic C Donors: Selective C(sp3)-H versus C(sp2)-H Bond Activation, Reactivity Towards Acids and Bases, and Catalytic Oxidation of Silanes and Water
    Metalation of a C2-methylated pyridylimidazolium salt with [IrCp*Cl2]2 affords either an ylidic complex, resulting from C(sp3)[BOND]H bond activation of the C2-bound CH3 group if the metalation is performed in the presence of a base, such as AgO2 or Na2CO3, or a mesoionic complex via cyclometalation and thermally induced heterocyclic C(sp2)[BOND]H bond activation, if the reaction is performed in the absence of a base. Similar cyclometalation and complex formation via C(sp2)[BOND]H bond activation is observed when the heterocyclic ligand precursor consists of the analogous pyridyltriazolium salt, that is, when the metal bonding at the C2 position is blocked by a nitrogen rather than a methyl substituent. Despite the strongly mesoionic character of both the imidazolylidene and the triazolylidene, the former reacts rapidly with D+ and undergoes isotope exchange at the heterocyclic C5 position, whereas the triazolylidene ligand is stable and only undergoes H/D exchange under basic conditions, where the imidazolylidene is essentially unreactive. The high stability of the Ir[BOND]C bond in aqueous solution over a broad pH range was exploited in catalytic water oxidation and silane oxidation. The catalytic hydrosilylation of ketones proceeds with turnover frequencies as high as 6 000 h−1 with both the imidazolylidene and the triazolylidene system, whereas water oxidation is enhanced by the stronger donor properties of the imidazol-4-ylidene ligands and is more than three times faster than with the triazolylidene analogue.
      383Scopus© Citations 42
  • Publication
    Photolytic water oxidation catalyzed by a molecular carbene iridium complex
    The complex IrCl2(Cp*)(trz) (trz = triazolylidene), 2, was prepared from readily available 1,3-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazolium salt. Under basic conditions, the C-bound phenyl group readily cyclometalates, while under acidic conditions, cyclometalation is reversed. The sensitivity of the Caryl–Ir bond but not the Ctrz–Ir bond towards acidolysis provided a basis for using 2 as a catalyst in CeIV-mediated water oxidation. The catalytic activity is characterized by a robust catalytic cycle, affording excellent turnover numbers (TON > 20 000). Under cerium-free conditions and in the presence of hematite as a photoelectrode, light-induced activity was observed. The photoelectrochemical reaction is strongly pH-dependent, which requires pH adjustments when running multiple cycle experiments to regenerate the catalytic activity. Analogous chelating complexes display better stability and higher catalytic activity than the monodentate complex 2.
      403Scopus© Citations 91
  • Publication
    Mesoionic triazolylidene nickel complexes: synthesis, ligand lability, and catalytic C–C bond formation activity
    (American Chemical Society, 2014-07-28) ; ; ;
    A set of triazolylidene (trz) nickel(II) complexes [NiCpX(trz)] was synthesized by a direct metalation of the corresponding triazolium salt with nickelocene, NiCp2. While at short reaction times and in the presence of a coordinating anion X the mono-carbene complex is preferably formed, long reaction times induce the gradual transformation of [NiCpX(trz)] to the bis-carbene complexes [Ni(Cp)(trz)2]+. Kinetic analyses lend strong support to a consecutive pathway involving triazolylidene dissociation from [NiCpX(trz)] en route to the bis-carbene complex. Similar carbene transfer is observed in a solid-state reaction upon heating the complex [NiCpI(trz)] in vacuo, which induces disproportionation to [NiI2(trz)2] and NiCp2, confirming that the Ni–C(trz) bond is kinetically labile. The complexes [Ni(Cp)(trz)2]+ and [NiCpX(trz)] were both efficient catalyst precursors for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl bromides and phenylboronic acid, with turnover frequencies exceeding 228 h–1. Complex degradation after short reaction times, identified in separate experiments, prohibits high turnover numbers, and for high conversions, repetitive additions of triazolylidene nickel complex and phenylboronic acid are necessary.
      354Scopus© Citations 47