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  • Publication
    Examples of building response to excavation and tunneling
    Monitoring of ground movements around tunnels and excavations on the Washington Metro led to development of procedures for assessing ground loss or movements at the boundaries of the excavation or tunnel and the distribution of movements through the soil mass to the ground surface and to adjacent structures (Cording and Hansmire, 1975, O’Rourke and Cording, 1974). As the field investigations progressed in Washington, instrumentation and observations were concentrated on the effect of ground movements on structures. (Boscardin and Cording, 1989). More recently, a research program consisting of numerical and model studies correlated with field observations was conducted to assess the relation of building distortion and damage to excavation-induced ground movements. This paper provides examples of building damage and distortion resulting from excavation or tunneling and evaluates the behavior of the buildings using methods developed in previous studies. The buildings are on shallow foundations in U.S.cities. Most are masonry bearing wall structures built in the 1800s or early 1900s.
  • Publication
    Assessment of excavation-induced building damage
    Ground movements during excavation have the potential for major impact on nearby buildings, utilities and streets. Increasingly ground movements are controlled at the source. They are assessed by linking the ground loss at the excavation wall to the volume change and displacements in the soil mass, and then to the lateral strains and angular distortion in structural bays or units, and are related to damage using a damage criterion based on the state of strain at a point. Numerical and physical models of excavation-induced building damage were used to vary parameters and develop procedures for assessing distortion and damage. Examples of building distortion and damage are presented for brick bearing wall structures of the 1800’s and early 1900’s, as well as later frame structures, that illustrate how geometry, era of construction, stiffness, and condition influence building response to ground movement.
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