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  • Publication
    Mechanisms of Action of Zinc on Intestinal Epithelial Electrogenic Ion Secretion: Insights into its Anti-Diarrheal Actions
    Objectives  Zinc is a useful addition to oral rehydration therapy for acute diarrhoea. We have assessed the mechanism of its epithelial antisecretory action when intestinal epithelial tight junctions were pharmacologically opened. Methods  Rat isolated ileal and colonic mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and exposed to ZnSO4 (Zn2+) in the presence of secretagogues and inhibition of short circuit current (Isc) was measured. Key findings  Pre-incubation with basolateral but not apical Zn2+ reduced Isc stimulated by forskolin, carbachol and A23187. In the presence of the tight junction-opener, cytochalasin D, antisecretory effects of apically-applied Zn2+ were enabled in colon and ileum. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of Zn2+ was increased 1.4- and 2.4-fold across rat ileum and colon, respectively, by cytochalasin D. Basolateral addition of Zn2+ also reduced the Isc stimulated by nystatin in rat colon, confirming K channel inhibition. In comparison with other inhibitors, Zn2+ was a relatively weak blocker of basolateral KATP and K Ca2+ channels. Exposure of ileum and colon to Zn2+ for 60 min had minimal effects on epithelial histology. Conclusions  Antisecretory effects of Zn2+ on intestinal epithelia arose in part through nonselective blockade of basolateral K channels, which was enabled when tight junctions were open.
      344Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Investigation of facilitative urea transporters in the human gastrointestinal tract
    The symbiotic relationship between humans and their intestinal microbiomeis supported by urea nitrogen salvaging. Previous studies have shown thatcolonic UT-B urea transporters play a significant role in this important physi-ological process. This current study investigated UT-A and UT-B urea trans-porter expression along the human gastrointestinal tract. Initial end-pointPCR experiments determined that UT-A RNA was predominantly expressedin the small intestine, while UT-B RNA was expressed in stomach, small intes-tine, and colon. Using western blotting experiments, a strong 40–60 kDa UT-B signal was found to be abundant in both ileum and colon. Importantly, thissignal was deglycosylated by PNGaseF enzyme treatment to a core protein of30 kDa in both tissues. Further immunolocalization studies revealed UT-Btransporter proteins were present at the apical membrane of the villi in theileum, but predominantly at the basolateral membrane of the colonic surfaceepithelial cells. Finally, a blind scoring immunolocalization study suggestedthat there was no significant difference in UT-B abundance throughout thecolon (NS, ANOVA,N=5–21). In conclusion, this current study suggestedUT-B to be the main human intestinal urea transporter. Intriguingly, thesedata suggested that the same UT-B isoform was present in all intestinalepithelial cells, but that the precise cellular location varied.
      395Scopus© Citations 7