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- PublicationRetaining wall behaviour in Dublin's fluvio-glacial gravel, IrelandPractising engineers in the Dublin, Ireland, area have significant experience in dealing with the Boulder Clay which underlies much of the city. However, the 45 m deep buried pre-glacial channel north of the River Liffey is infilled with fluvio-glacial deposits which behave very differently from an engineering point of view. Case history data from eight sites and a detailed examination of the retaining wall behaviour at two of the sites show that retaining wall movements appear to be governed by system stiffness (i.e. a combination of wall stiffness and support configuration). It seems that relatively simple beam–spring type computer programs will provide data for reasonably accurate designs of retaining walls for basements of up to two levels. Input parameters such as K 0, φ‘ and soil stiffness need to be carefully specified. Groundwater inflows can be significant but can be dealt with by providing a good cut-off into the underlying glacial till or bedrock and by conventional pumping techniques. Geophysical techniques such as multichannel analysis of surface waves, S/P waves and resistivity can be very useful for the determination of soil properties, such as degree of saturation, density and stiffness, and for material characterisation (i.e. distinguishing the presence of these materials in contrast to the Boulder Clay).
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