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- PublicationThe Impact of Constructing Aqueducts on the Settlement Patterns of Roman Crete(Peeters, 2004-10-10)In this paper the Roman aqueducts of Crete will be presented for the purpose of exploring the effects of aqueduct construction on settlement patterns on the island.1 The study will demonstrate the diversity and the extent to which Roman aqueducts feature within the Cretan landscape and explore how the distribution density relates to the enhanced requirement for water supplies inherent in Roman society.
- PublicationA Turkish Import in County Meath: Mediterranean Pottery on the M3(National Roads Authority, 2008)Analysis of a pottery fragment discovered on the M3 has revealed evidence of ancient trade between Ireland and the eastern Mediterranean. A sherd from the rim of an imported pottery vessel recovered from an early medieval cemetery at Collierstown 1, Co. Meath (excavated by Robert O’Hara of Archaeological Consultancy Services Ltd), has been identified recently as Phocaean Red Slip Ware (PRSW) Form 3. The type is named after a major production centre at Phocaea, in western Turkey. The Collierstown sherd comes from a vessel manufactured there some 1,500 years ago.
- PublicationDistributions of Cretan Aqueducts; a window onto Romanisation(Society of Cretan Historical Studies, 2001)Images of the magnificent and solid Pont du Gard, the grandeur of the Segovian aqueduct juxtaposed against its modern urban setting, or the mirage-like aqueduct approaching Carthage are usually invoked when one thinks of a Roman aqueduct. Unfortunately, and somewhat surprisingly, the Roman aqueducts of Crete are rarely evoked in such terms, if ever evoked at all.
- PublicationThe Leukos Survey ProjectFrom 2008 to 2011, we conducted archaeological explorations in the area known today as Kato Leukos on the Greek island of Karpathos. Our interest in the site was sparked by the late Gilbert Bagnani. In June of 1923, as a graduate student and a member of the Italian School of Archaeology at Athens, Bagnani traveled to Karpathos in the company of the director of the School and a fellow student. While investigating the visible remains at Kato Leukos, Bagnani commented in his notebook, “there can be no doubt that it is the site of an ancient city, perhaps Nysiros, the only one of the four cities of Karpathos whose site is still unknown.” His suggestion was in direct response to Strabo’s claim that Karpathos was home to a tetrapolis. Three of the four cities, Pigadia, Arkassa and Vrykous, are known, the fourth remains unidentified (fig. 1). In addition, Bagnani also noted architectural blocks with cuttings and moldings characteristic of temple architecture strewn about the upper portion of the site. He did not publish his work, but deposited his field notes in the archives at Trent University and the Italian School at Athens. Armed with Bagnani’s observations, we superficially inspected the area in 2004 and then commenced four seasons of intensive archaeological surface survey in 2008. Our goals in the field were fourfold, to determine: 1) the chronological parameters of the settlement; 2) the extent of the settlement and its relationship to the land- and sea-scape; 3) the settlement’s urban institutions, and; 4) the settlement’s role in seafaring and maritime trade. Although the results of our field work could not confirm Bagnani’s suggestion that Kato Leukos was the fourth member of Strabo’s tetrapolis, our survey established the remains of two later settlements: a 4th- to 6th-century CE port settlement (hereafter, Leukos) and an 11th- to 13th-century CE fortified islet (hereafter, Sokastro) (fig. 2). Karpathos lay at the crossroads of two major shipping lanes and the ceramic evidence recorded at both settlements confirms their participation in seaborne trade.5 Because Karpathos lacks natural resources and arable land, the Leukos Survey Project sought to determine whether the two settlements were entirely dependent for survival on the ships transporting their tradable cargos which plied the island’s waters and sheltered in its natural harbors. The tumultuous history of the Aegean during the medieval period no doubt also contributed to the short-lived nature of both settlements. Our project was the first scientifically-based archaeological survey conducted on Karpathos, and the preliminary results presented here begin to define the medieval history of the island with newly-gathered data.
- PublicationRoman Bathhouses on Crete as Indicators of Cultural Transition: The Dynamics of Roman Influence(Institute of Classical Studies, 2013)The grafting of Roman mores onto local identities is a complex issue and gaps in the archaeological record u ltimately result in misleading and biased deductions. The wide variety of models for Roman integration unde rscores gradations of responsiveness and exposes subtle undulations of Romanization throughout the Empire whereby Roman presence can resonate with almost unconscious societal change, establishing patterns of minimal influence.
- PublicationRoman Finewares from Sector II Pyrgi, Eleutherna(Faculty of Letters Publications, University of Crete, 2012)This paper presents a small, but representative, sample of imported Roman finewares at Eleutherna, Sector II Pyrgi, and considers its implications for, or at least small contribution to, an appreciation of Imperial Rome’s earliest influence on the settlement on the acropolis of Eleutherna within its provincial context.
- PublicationThe Roman Baths of Mylopotamos: a distribution study.(Historical and Folklore Society of Rethymno, 2003-10-30)The eparchy of Mylopotamos is home to a cluster of Roman baths including examples at Eleutherna, Stavromenos, Chamalevri, Alpha and Plaka Kalis. Furthermore, Roman baths have also been identified at Sybritos and Vizari located south of the modern boundaries of the province, but are best understood as part of this larger regional concentration. This article examines this notable concentration of Roman baths through an appraisal of their common heating system. This heating system is characterised by the application of clay spacer pins to the main architectural walls of the bathhouse. These spacer pins secure a parallel screen wall, composed of a series of large flat tiles, which creates a cavity allowing for the circulation of hot air generated in the hypocaust of the bath. This heating system, incorporating the use of spacer pins, is not exclusively restricted to the Mylopotamos region but represents the characteristic Roman bathhouse heating system of the island of Crete. In the wider empire, spacer pins have been found in baths in North Africa, Israel, Cyprus, Rhodes, and Asia Minor, but not elsewhere. The dense distribution of this heating system across Crete contrasts starkly with its apparent rarity on mainland Greece (where a preference for spacer tubes and tubuli / box tiles is demonstrable). Wider imperial distribution of spacer pins supports direct connections and influence between Crete and Asia Minor (particularly in Lycia), and to a lesser extent, North Africa. There are clear economic benefits to the use of spacer pins in bathhouse heating systems as they could be produced quickly, efficiently and economically on a large scale in Crete. Their production is confirmed in many of the major sites of production of amphorae on the island, being securely identified at Chersonisos, Tsoutsouros, Dermatos and Gortyna.This coupling of the manufacture of spacer pins with amphora production sites establishes their manufacture on an intense island-wide scale during the 2nd and 3rd century BC, which also corresponds to a period of extensive construction of public baths across the island. The grouping in Mylopotamos represents the densest inland bathhouse concentration on the island, and, since a public bath, no matter how small, was necessary for civic esteem in the Roman period, as it was in such visible terms that rival cities measured their status, their presence intimates that this inland area was particularly attractive for urban development. By the 3rd century AD these major sites had grown to such a size whereby they could generate small satellite settlements within their hinterlands (as possibly represented by the baths of Vizari and Alpha). This dynamic is a testimony to the success of the Roman urban pattern in Crete, which not only created urban structures but also transformed rural life, and establishes Eleutherna as one of the most dominant cities in Crete during the imperial period.
- PublicationKouphonisi (Greece): a briefly vibrant Roman harbourage between Crete and AfricaThis paper explores the dynamics leading to the establishment of a relatively prosperous Roman settlement on the islet of Kouphonisi in Crete. The settlement was clearly comparatively wealthy, judging from the range of its public buildings (including a bathhouse, theatre, aqueducts and cistern complexes) and the opulent decor of its private residences. What conditions generated such favourable economic circumstances for the inhabitants of this tiny arid islet lying in the Libyan Sea three miles off the southeastern tip of Crete? The location of the islet, which today seems remote and far-removed, is appraised in the context of its seasonal sea currents and favourable winds which facilitated its navigational connectivity with Roman markets operating in the wider Mediterranean. Already in the Hellenistic period, the islet's strategic importance was keenly recognised by the competitive cities of eastern Crete who vied for its control. However, these serendipitous circumstances, and the site's sustainability, were short lived. The settlement's economic boom (born of its strategic position along the wider sailing routes of the Mediterranean) ended abruptly and permanently in the late 4th century AD. Finally, the paper examines the possible nature of the drastic forces which may have been responsible for the settlement's abandonment, thereby signalling the beginning of a process of desertification which persists today.
- PublicationFinal Report: Archaeological Excavations at Grange 5, M3 Clonee North of Kells Motorway SchemeThis is a final report of an archaeological excavation at Grange 5 which was located on the route of the M3 Navan–Kells & Kells Bypass (Archaeological Services Contract 4) of the M3 Clonee–North of Kells Motorway Scheme, County Meath. The excavation was carried out by Amanda Kelly of Irish Archaeological Consultancy Ltd on behalf of Meath County Council and the National Roads Authority. The work was carried out under Ministerial Direction No. A029/003 and National Monuments Service (NMS) Excavation Registration No. E3121 which were received from the DoEHLG in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland. The fieldwork took place between 16 – 27 November 2006. A total area of 850m2 was opened around Grange 5 to reveal the archaeological features that were identified at the site during archaeological testing under licence 04E0925. Five pits, two possible postholes and two curvilinear ditches were identified at Grange 5. One of the pits was dated to the early Bronze Age but appeared to be in isolation. Two of the pits had charcoal rich fills with scorched/burnt bases and contained large quantities of charred plant remains including barley, oat and rye. A date in the Iron Age/early medieval period was established for one of these features and these have been interpreted as cereal-drying pits/features. The two curvilinear ditches were undated but respected the features outlined above
- PublicationSurvey and Excavations at Ghawr as-Safi 2004Survey and excavations were conducted in teh Ghawe as-Safi during March and April 2004. The project was sponsored by the Hellenic Society for Near Eastern Studies and supported by the Palestine Exploration Fund in collaboration with the Department of Antiquities of Jordan. Additional support came from ARAMEX International Couriers. During the course of the season's work, the board of directors of the Jordan River Foundation accepted to officially sponsor the project's future activities.